The Complete Roman Empire Timeline: Dates of Battles, Emperors, and Events

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The Roman Empire timeline is a long, complex, and intricate tale covering nearly 22 centuries. Here is a snapshot of the battles, emperors, and events that shaped that story.

NOTE: If you want to read a detailed breakdown, you can do so here: The Roman Empire

Pre-Roman Empire

1200 BCE – beginning of the first iron age. The Prisci Latini migrate to Italy from the Danube region.

c. 1000 BCE – Latins settle in Latium

c.1000 BCE – Beginning of Etruscan migrations into Italy

10th Century BCE – The first settlement on the Palatine Hill on the future site of Rome

8th Century BCE

753 BCEFoundation of the city of Rome (according to Varro)

c. 750 BCE – Beginning of Greek colonization in Italy: the foundation of Ischia, Cumae (754), Naxos in Sicily (735), and Syracuse (c.734)

753-716 BCE – Rule of the first of the Roman kings, Romulus

715-674 BCE – Reign of Numa Pompilius

c. 700 BCE – Etruscan civilization begins to flourish

c. 750-670 BCE – Septimonium: union of settlers of Palatine, Cermalus, Velia, Fagutal, Cuspius, Oppius and Caelius

7th Century BCE

c. 650 BCE – Etruscan expansion into Campania

c. 625 BCE – historical founding of Rome

673-642 BCE – Reign of Tullus Hostilius. Destruction of Alba Longa.

642-617 BCE – Reign of Ancus Marcius. Extension of Rome’s power to the coast.

616-579 BCE – Reign of L. Tarquinius Priscus. Forum drained.

6th Century BCE

578-535 BCE – Reign of Servius Tullius. Treaty with Latins.

535-510 BCE – Reign of L. Tarquinius Superbus. Erection of the Capitoline Temple. Treaty with Gabii. Roman territory extended to ca. 350 square miles.

510 BCE – Downfall of the last Tarquinian king, Tarquinius Superbus. Brutus liberates Rome. Establishment of the Roman Republic headed by two magistrates (later called consuls) elected annually.

509 BCE – Treaty between Rome and Carthage

507 BCE – Consecration of the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol

504 BCE – Migration of the Sabine Claudii clan to Rome

501 BCE – Appointment of the first dictator

5th Century BCE

496 BCE – Battle of Lake Regillus between Rome and Latin League

494 BCE – First secession of the plebeians on the Mons Sacer, several miles from Rome. Creation of the tribunes of the people.

493 BCE – Treaty with the Latins

491 BCE – Coriolanus impeached and condemned to exile

486 BCE – Wars with the Aequi and Volsci begin (continue with many intervals for the next fifty years)

482-474 BCE – War with Veii

479 BCE – Veii wins the Battle of Cremera

474 BCE – The Greek city-states in Italy win a naval battle at Cumae and crush Etruscan power in Campania

471 BCE – Creation of the concilium Plebis. Office of the tribunes officially recognized

457 BCE – Aequi win Battle at Mt. Algidus. Cincinnatus becomes dictator for sixteen days and rescues remaining Roman army

c. 451 BCE – Decemvirs tyrants of Rome. Code of the Twelve Tables lays the basis for Roman law

449 BCE – Fall of the decemvirs. Powers of the tribunes defined.

447 BCE – Quaestors elected by the people

443 BCE – Censorship established

431 BCE – Decisive defeat of the Aequi at Mt. Algidus

428 BCE – Rome conquers Fidenae (from Veii)

421 BCE – Quaestors increased to four, open to plebeians

4th Century BCE

c. 396 BCE – The Roman dictator Camillus conquers Veii, one of the principal Etruscan centers, after long siege. Introduction of military pay. Peace with the Volsci.

390 BCE – (or 387!) Romans defeated by the Gauls under Brennus at the Battle of Allia. Gauls sack Rome, only the Capitol is defended by the citizenry

388 BCE – Aequi defeated at Bola

386-385 BCE – Latins, Volsci and Hernici defeated

381 BCE – Tusculum conquered

c. 378 BCE – Erection of the Roman city wall traditionally but erroneously credited to King Servius Tullius, who reigned two centuries earlier

377 BCE – Latins defeated after their capture of Satricum

367 BCE – Lex Liciniae Sextiae: Consulship restored, plebeians admitted to the office of consul

366 BCE – First plebeian consul

361 BCE – Romans capture Ferentinum

359 BCE – Revolt of Tarquinii

358 BCE – Treaty with Latins

357 BCE – Maximum amount of interest fixed. Falerii revolts. Gauls raid Latium.

356 BCE – First plebeian dictator

354  BCE -Alliance of Rome and Samnites

353 BCE – Caere defeated

351 BCE – First plebeian censor

349 BCE – Gallic raid checked

346 BCE – Defeat of Antium and Satricum

348 BCE – Treaty with the Carthaginians

343-341 BCE – First Samnite War, Romans occupy northern Campania

340-338 BCE – Latin War: Rome conquers the seaport of Antium

338 BCE – Latin League dissolved. Many cities granted full or partial citizenship

337 BCE – First plebeian praetor

334 BCE – Alexander of Macedon begins his eastward campaign

332 BCE – Treaty with Tarentum (possibly 303 BC)

c. 330 BCE – Colony founded at Ostia

329 BCE – Privernum captured

328 BCE – Etruria and Campania annexed

326-304 BCE – Second Samnite War: Rome increases its influence in southernmost Italy

321 BCE – Samnites entrap and defeat Roman army at Caudine Forks. Romans forced to accept a truce. Rome surrenders Fregellae

c. 320 BCE – Colonies founded: Luceria (314, Canusium (318), Alba Fucens (303), Carsioli (298), Minturnae (296), Sinuessa (296), thus extending Roman sway into Apulia, the Abruzzi, and southern Italy

315 BCE – Luceria captured. Samnite victory at Lautulae. Capua revolts and joins Samnites

314 BCE – Roman victory at Tarracina. Capua conquered

313 BCE – Fregellae and Sora captured

312 BCE – Censorship of Appius Claudius. Via Appia, connecting Rome and Capua, and Aqua Appia begun

310 BCE – Treaties with Cortona, Perusia and Arretium

307 BCE – Revolt of Hernici

306 BCE – Anagnia conquered and granted limited citizenship

304 BCE – Aequi defeated. Under the censor Fabius Maximus Rullianus landless new citizens are assigned to four tribes in the city

300 BCE – Lex Ogulnia: plebeians admitted to priestly offices

3rd Century BCE

298-290 BCE – Third Samnite War: Rome becomes all-powerful in southern Italy

298 BCE – Rome captures Bovanium Vetus and Aufidena

295 BCE – Roman victory over Samnites, Gauls and Umbirnas at Sentinum

294 BCE – Samnite victory at near Luceria

293 BCE – Roman victory over Samnites at Aquilona

292 BCE – Falerii conquered

291 BCE – Venusia conquered

290 BCE – The Sabines submit to Roman rule and receive limited citizenship. Peace with Samnites.

287 BCE – Lex Hortensia: conflict between social orders placated by conceding same voting rights to all

283 BCE – Boii defeated at Lake Vadimo

282 BCE – Rome conquers territory still held by the Gauls along the Adriatic, Roman Fleet attacked by Tarentum

280-275 BCE – War against king Phyrrus of Epirus

280 BCE – Phyrrus lands in Italy and defeats Romans at Heraclea

279 BCE – Roman defeat at Battle of Asculum

278 BCE – Roman treaty with Carthage. Pyrrhus leaves Italy for Sicily.

275 BCE – Pyrrhus returns to Italy but is defeated near Malventum and leaves Italy for good.

272 BCE – Surrender of Tarentum

270 BCE – Capture of Rhegium

269 BCE – Earliest Roman minting of coins

268 BCE – Picentes conquered and granted limited citizenship

267 BCE War with Sallentini. Capture of Brundisium

266 BCE – Apulia and Messapia reduced to alliance

264 BCE – Introduction of gladiatorial shows in Rome. Capture of Volsinii. Roman alliance with Mamertines.

264-241 BCE – First Punic War: Rome comes to the defence of the Greek cities in Sicily against Carthage

263 BCE – Hiero of Syracuse becomes ally of Romei

262 BCE – Capture of Agrigentum

261-260 BCE – Rome builds fleet

260 BCE – Naval victory of Mylae. Capture of Rhegium

259 BCE – Roman occupation of Corsica

257 BCE – Naval victory of Tyndaris

256 BCE – Naval victory of Ecnomus. Romans land in Africa

255 BCE – Romans defeated in Africa. Naval victory off Cape Hermaeum. Fleet wrecked off Pachynus

254 BCE – Capture of Panormus

253 BCE – Roman fleet wrecked of Palinurus

250 BCE – Victory at Panormus. Siege of Lilybaeum

249 BCE – Carthaginian naval victory at Drepana

247 BCE – Hamilcar Barca begins Carthaginian offensive in western Sicily

241 BCE – Naval victory off Aegates Insulae. Peace with Carthage. Occupation of Sicily which is made a Roman province. Construction of the Via Aurelia from Rome to Pisa

238 BCE – Romans oust Carthaginians from Sardinia and Corsica

237 BCE – Hamilcar goes to Spain

236 BCE – Gallic raids in northern Italy

230 BCE – Hasdrubal succeeds Hamilcar in Spain

229 BCE – First Illyrian War Roman influence established on Illyrian coast

226 BCE – Treaty defining river Iberus (Ebro) as border of influence between Rome and Carthage

225-222 BCE – Celtic War: conquest of Cisalpine Gaul

225 BCE – Invading Gauls defeated at Telamon

223 BCE – Flaminius defeats insubres

222 BCE – Battle of Clastidium. Surrender of Insubres

221 BCE – Hannibal succeeds Hasdrubal in Spain

220 BCE – Censorship of Flaminius. Via Flaminia begun

219 BCE – Second Illyrian War. Conquest of Illyria. Hannibal captures Saguntum.

218-201 BCE – Second Punic War

218 BCE – Hannibal crosses Alps and arrives in northern Italy. Battle of Ticinus and Battle of Trebia.

217 BCE – Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene. Naval victory off river Iberus (Ebro)

216 BCE – Roman defeat at Cannae. Capua revolts.

215 BCE – Hannibal in southern Italy. Alliance of Carthage with Philip of Macedon and with Syracuse after death of Hiero. Hasdrubal defeated at Dertosa.

214-205 BCE – First Macedonian War

213 BCE – Hannibal occupies Tarentum (except for the citadel). Roman siege of Syracuse.

212 BCE – Siege of Capura

211 BCE – Introduction of the denarius coin. Hannibal’s march on Rome. Fall of Capua and Syracuse. Defeat of the Scipios in Spain.

210 BCE – Fall of Agrigentum. Scipio lands in Spain.

209 BCE – Recapture of Tarentum. Capture of Carthago Nova.

208 BCE – Death of Marcellus. Battle of Baecula.

207 BCE – Hasdrubal defeated at Metaurus

206 BCE – Battle of Ilipa near Seville: Carthaginian rule collapses in Spain

205 BCE – Scipio in Sicily.

204 BCE – Cult stone of the mother goddess brought from Asia Minor to Rome. Scipio lands in Africa.

203 BCE – Scipio defeats Syphax and wins battle of the Great Plains. Hannibal recalled to Carthage. Mago defeated in Gaul.

202 BCE – Scipio’s victory at the Battle of Zama. Rome succeeds Carthage as ruler of the western Mediterranean. Aggressions of Philip and Antiochus.

200-197 BCE – Second Macedonian War

2nd Century BCE

197 BCE – Macedonians war ends with defeat of Philip V by T. Quinctius Flamininus at Cynoscephalae. Spain organized into two provinces. Revolt of Turdenati in Spain. Antiochus occupies Ephesus.

196 BCE – Marcus Porcius Cato consul

195 BCE – Hannibal exiled, joins Antiochus. Masinissa starts raids on Carthaginian territory.

192-188 BCE – Rome wars against King Antiochus II of Seleucia

191 BCE – Antiochus defeated at Thermopylae. Antiochus’ fleet defeated off Corycus.

190 BCE – The Scipios in Greece. Antiochus’ fleet defeated.

189 BCE – Antiochus defeated at Magnesia, Campanians enrolled as citizens. Fall of Ambracia. Peace with Aetolia. Manlius raids Galatia/

188 BCE – Peace of Apamea means end of war with Antiochus

187 BCE – Construction of Via Aemilia and Via Flaminia

184 BCE – Cato censor.

184/3 BCE – Death of Scipio

183/2 BCE – Death of Hannibal

181-179 BCE – First Celtiberian War

179 BCE – Accession of Perseus to the throne of Macedon

172 BCE – Two plebeian consuls in office for the first time

171-168 BCE – Third Macedonian War

168 BCE – Defeat of Macedonian King Perseus at Pydna

167 BCE – Epirus plundered. Macedon divided into four parts, Illyricum into four.

157-155 BCE – Campaigns in Dalmatia and Pannonia

154-138 BCE – Lusitanian War

153-151 BCE – Second Celtiberian War

151 BCE – Carthage declares war on Masinissa

149-146 BCE – Third Punic War

149 BCE – Siege of Carthage begun. Rising of Andriscus in Macedonia.

147 BCE – Macedonia annexed as a Roman province

146 BCE – Destruction of Carthage. Africa annexed as a province. Achaean War: Roman wars against the league of Greek cities. Corinth destroyed by the Romans

143-133 BCE – Third Celtiberian War (also called Numantine War)

142 BCE – Censorship of Scipio Aemilianus. Stone bridge over the Tiber.

137 BCE – Defeat and surrender of Mancinus in Spain

135-132 BCE – Slave War in Sicily

134 BCE – Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus becomes people’s tribune in the absence of the Consul Scipio Aemilianus. His assassination in 133 sparks open class conflict in Rome

133 BCE – King Attalus II bequeaths Pergamum by Testament to Rome. Scipio Aemilianus sacks Numantia and settles Spain.

129 BCE – Death of Scipio Aemilianus. Province of Asia organized.

124 BCE – War against Arverni and Allobroges in Gaul

123 BCE – First tribunate of Gaius Gracchus

122 BCE – Second tribunate of Gaius Gracchus

121 BCE – Civil disorder in Rome. Gaius Gracchus killed. Many followers of the Gracchi are executed. Defeat of the Arverni and Allobroges. Gallia Narbonensis becomes a Roman province.

119 BCE – Marius tribune. Abolition of the Gracchan land commission.

116 BCE – Senatorial commission despatched to Numidia to mediate on succession.

113-101 BCE – Cimbri and Teutones invade Roman territories

113 BCE – Cn. Carbo defeated at Noreia by the Cimbri

112-106 BCE – Jughurtine War

112 BCE – Jugurtha sacks Cirta. War declared on Jughurta.

110 BCE – War in Africa.

109 BCE – Metellus gains some successes against Jughurta

107 BCE – Marius elected consul, succeeds Metellus for command in Africa and captures Capsa. Cassius defeated by Tigurini in Gaul.

106 BCE – Birth of Cicero and Pompey. Marius advances into western Numidia. Bocchus of Mauretania surrenders Jughurta to Sulla.

105 BCE – Cimbri and Teutones destroy Roman armies at Arausio.

104-100 BCE – Second Sicilian slave war.

104 BCE – Marius consul second time, reorganizes Roman army.

103 BCE – Marius consul third time. Land allotments for Marius’ veterans. Marius trains army in Gaul.

102 BCE – Marius consul fourth time, defeats Teutones near Aquae Sextiae (Aix-en-Provence). M. Antonius sent to Cilicia to deal with pirates.

101 BCE – Marius consul fifth time. Marius and Catullus defeat Cimbri at Vercellae (Vercelli).

100 BCE – Marius consul sixth time. Rioting in Rome. Marius restores order. Birth of Julius Caesar.

1st Century BCE

98 BCE – Marius leaves Rome for Asia. Revolt in Lusitania

96 BCE – Ptolemy Aion bequeaths Cyrene to Rome by testament

95 BCE – Mithridates ordered out of Paphlagonia and Cappadocia.

91-89 BCE – Social War between Rome and its Italian allies

90 BCE – Roman setbacks in Social War. Lex Julia: Latins, Etruscans, and Umbrians remaining loyal to Rome are given Roman citizenship.

89-85 BCE – Fisrt Mithridatic War. – War with Mithridates VI of Pontus over his territorial ambitions.

89 BCE – Victories of Strabo and Sulla. Lex Plautia Papiria: Roman citizenship conceded to all allies south of the Po.

88 BCE – Proposal to transfer command in Asia from Sulla to Marius by tribune Sulpicius Rufus. Sulla seizes Rome. Mithridates overruns Asia Minor.

87 BCE – Cinna and Marius in control of Rome, massacre Sulla’s supporters. Sulla lands in Greece and besieges Athens.

87-84 BCE – Consulships of Cinna

86 BCE – Marius consul seventh time, dies. Sulla conquers Athens, defeat Mithridates armies at Chaeronea and Orchomenus.

85 BCE – Treaty of Dardanus with Mithridates.

84 BCE – Cinna killed. Carbo sole consul.

83-82 BCE – Second Mithridatic War

83 BCE – Sulla lands in Italy. Murena begins Second Mithridatic War

82 BCE – Civil War in Italy. Sulla victorious. Proscribtions in Rome. Sertorius leaves for Spain. Pompeu crushes Sulla’s opponents in Sicily.

81 BCE – Sulla dictator. Constiturional reforms. Pompey defeats Marians in Africa. Sertorius driven out of Spain.

80 BCE – Sertorius lands in Spain again.

79 BCE – Sulla resigns dictatorship. Sertorius defeats Metellus Pius

78 BCE – Death of Sulla. P.Servilis starts three year campaign against pirates

77 BCE – Pompey oppointed against Sertorius

76  BCE -Sertorius victorious against Metellus and Pompey

75/74 BCE – Death of Nicomededs who bequeaths Bithynia to Rome

74-64  BCE – Third Mithradatic War

74 BCE – Cyrene made Roman province. M. Antonius given commmand against the pirates. Mithridates invades Bithynia; Lucullus sent against him.

73-71 BCE – Third Slave War

73 BCE – Rising of Spartacus at Capua. Lucullus relievesCyzicus, defeats Mithridates.

72 BCE – Successes of Spartacus. Assassination of Sertorius. Pompey victorious in Spain. Lucullus campaigns against Mithridates in Pontus. M.Antonius defeated by pirates of Crete.

71 BCE – Crassus defeats Spartacus. Lucullus defeats Mithridates, who flees to king Tigranes of Armenia.

70 BCE – First consulship of P{ompey and Crassus. Restoriation of tribunician powers (suppressed by Sulla). Birth of Virgil

69 BCE – Lucullus invades Armenia, captures its capital Tigranocerta

68 BCE – Mithridates returns to Pontus. Discontent in Lucullus army.

67 BCE – Pompey handed command against pirates. Pompey clears pirates from the Mediterranean.

66 BCE – Pompey given command against Mithridates, who is finally defeated. Pompey campaigns in Caucasus. Birth of Horace.

64 BCE – Pompey annexes Syria

63 BCE – Cicero consul. Caesar elected pontifex maximus. Seizure of Jerusalem by Pompey. Cataline Conspiracy. Death of Mithridates. Birth of Octavian.

62 BCE – Defeat and death of Catalina. Pompey settles matters in the east, returns to Italy and disbands his army.

61 BCE – Caesar governor of Further Spain. Revolt of the Allobroges. Aedui appeal to Rome.

60 BCE – Caesar returns from Spain, first triumvirate between Casesar, Crassus and Pompey.

59 BCE – Caesar consul. Pompey marries Caesar’s daughter Julia. Caesar given proconsulship of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum; senate adds Transalpine Gaul to this.

58-51 BCE – Caesar’s campaigns in Gaul

58 BCE – Tribunate of Clodius – corn law. Cicero exiled. Cyprus annexed. Caesar defeats Helvetii and Ariovistos

57 BCE – Clodius and Milo riot in Rome. Return of Cicero. Caesar defeats Nervii and other Belgae

56 BCE – Conference of the triumvirs at Luca.

55 BCE – Second consulship of Crassus and Pompey. First stone theatre of Rome, built by Pompey on the Campus Martius. Caesar bridges the Rhine, invades Germany, then Britain.

54 BCE – Pompey, near Rome, governs Spain through legates. Death of Julia. Caesar’s second expedition to Britain. revolt in north eastern Gaul. Crassus prepares for Parthian campaign.

53 BCE – Rioting in Rome. Battle of Carrhae: Roman army defeated by the Parthians, Crassus killed, the Roman army standards taken as booty

52 BCE – Milo kills Clodius. Trial of Milo. Pompey sole consul. Revolt of Vercingetorix in Gaul. Siege of Alesia, Caesar victorious.

51 BCE – Parthian invasion of Syria

49-45  BCE -Civil War – Julius Caesar fighting the Pompeians

49 BCE – On January 10 Caesar crosses the Rubicon and marches on Rome in defiance of the Senate. Pompey leaves for Greece. Caesar dictator fir first time, for eleven days, passes emergency legislation. Caesar in Spain, defeats Pompeians.

48-47 BCE – Caesar becomes involved in Egyptian dynastic struggles

48 BCE – Caesar consul for second time.Caesar crosses to Greece, defeats Pompey at Pharsalus. Pompey flees to Egypt where he is stabbed to death on landing. Caesar in Egypt. Alexandrine War. Caesar makes Cleopatra queen of Egypt.

47 BCE – Caesar dictator for second time in his absence. Caesar defeats King Pharnaces II of Pontus. Caesar returns to Rome, then leaves for Africa.

46 BCE – Caesar crushes surviving Pompeian forces under Scipio and Cato at Thapsus. Caesar dictator second time, consul third time. Cato commits suicide. Caesar returns to Rome, reforms calendar. Caesar leaves for Spain.

45 BCE – Caesar dictator third time, consul fourth time. In battle at Munda in Spain the last Roman Republican resistance is crushed

44 BCE – Caesar dictator fourth time (for life), consul fifth time. March 15, Caesar murdered by Brutus, Cassius, and their co-conspirators acting for the Republicans. Octavian returns from Greece.

43 BCE – Second Triumvirate: Anthony, Octavian, Lepidus. Proscriptions. Cicero is murdered

42 BCE – Julius Caesar deified. Sextus Pompeius controls Sicily. Battle of Philippi: the Triumvirate defeat Brutus and Cassius, both of whom take their own lives

41 BCE – Antony visits Asia Minor, then Alexandria.

40 BCE – Agreement at Brunidisum divides the Roman empire. Antony marries Octavia. Parthian invasion of Syria.

39 BCE – Agreement at misenum between Antony, Octavian and Sextus Pompeius. Parthian defeated at Mt Amanus.

38 BCE – Naval successes of Sextus Pompeius. Defeat of Parthians at Gindarus. Antony captures Samosata.

37 BCE – Pact of Tarentum; triumvirate renewed. Antony marries Cleopatra at Antioch.

36 BCE – Octavian granted tribunician immunity. Sextus Pompeius defeated at Naulochus. Lepidus ceases to be triumvir. Antony retreats through Armenia.

35 BCE – Octavian in Illyria. Death of Sextus Pompeius.

34 BCE – Antony celebrates triumph in Alexandria

33 BCE – Octavian consul for second time. Antony in Armenia. Antony and Cleapatra winter at Ephesus.

32 BCE – Octavia divorced by Antony. Octavian publishes Antony’s will in Rome. Antony and Cleopatra in Greece.

31 BCE – Octavian consul third time. (and hereon successivly until 23 BC). September 2, Octavian defeats Antony in naval battle off Actium

30 BCE – Tribunician powers granted to Octavian. In August, Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide in Alexandria

29 BCE – Octavian celebrates his Triumph in Rome, the doors of Temple of Janus are closed, the war officially ended, many legions disbanded, and land distributed to veterans. Dedication of Temple of Divus Julius.

28 BCE – The Senate, its numbers already somewhat reduced by Octavian, grants him the title of Princeps Senatus. Census held by Octavian and Agrippa. Mausoleum of Augustus begun.

27 BCE – January 13, Octavian makes the gesture of returning command of the state to the Senate and the people of Rome, receiving in return vast provinces and most of the army as his own. Three days later the Senate confers on him great powers, numerous honors, and the title of Augustus

27-25 BCE – Augustus directs the final subjugation of Spain and the administrative reorganization of Spain and Gaul

23 BCE – The Senate grants Augustus the titles and powers of Imperium proconsulare maius and tribunicia potestas for life, thereby turning over to him complete control of the State and ending the Roman Republic

23 BCE – The Senate grants Augustus the titles and powers of Imperium proconsulare maius and tribunicia potestas for life, thereby turning over to him complete control of the State and ending the Roman Republic

21-19 BCE – Without bloodshed Augustus wins back from King Phraates IV the Roman standards lost to the Parthians in 53

17 BCE – Secular Games (Ludi saeculares) celebrated as symbol of the new Golden Age brought in by Augustus

15 BCE – The territory of the Raeti and Celtic Vincelici (Tyrol,Bavaria,Switzerland) subdued, the new province of Raetia instituted

13 BCE – July 4, consecration ceremony of the Altar of Peace (ara Pacis) voted by the Senate to honor Augustus

12 BCE – Augustus takes title and position of Pontifex Maximus

13-9 BCE – Campaigns in Pannoia

12-9 BCE – Campaigns in Germany

9 BCE – 30 January, dedication of the completed Ara Pacis Augustae

5 BCE – Gaius Caesar, grandson of Augustus, named heir presumptive, princeps juventutis

4 BCE – most likely date for Birth of Jesus Christ

2 BCE – Augustus is awarded the honourific title of pater patriae. Lucius Caesar, brother of Gaius, likewise is name Princeps juventutis

1st Century CE

2 CE – Lucius Caesar dies in Massilia

4 CE – Gaius Caesar dies in Lycia from a wound sustained in battle eighteen months earlier

6-9 CE – Pannonian revolt suppressed by Tiberius

9 CE – Roman army under Varus suffers overwhelming defeat in the Teutoburg Forest in the campaign against the Cherusci

14 CE – August 19, Augustus dies at Nola. On September 17 the Senate elevates him to the pantheon of State gods, an honor he had himself prepared by building a temple to the Divius Julius

14-37 CE – Tiberius emperor

14-16 CE – Germanicus, nephew and adopted heir of Tiberius leads campaign in Germany. Germans evacuated to the right bank of the Rhine

19 CE – Mysterious death (by poison?) of Germanicus in Antioch

21-22 CE – The Praetorian Guard in Rome is concentrated into a single huge barracks (the Castra Praetoria), a move engineered by their prefect Sejanus to make them into a political force

26 CE – Tiberius saved by Sejanus when his grotto-villa at Sperlonga caves in. The emperor, rarely in the capital, retires to Capri

26-31 CE – Sejanus becomes all-powerful in Rome but is arrested and executed on October 18, AD 31

37 CE – March March 16, death of Tiberius

37-41 CE – Caligula emperor

39-40 CE – To justify his military pretensions Caligula launches an abortive campaign against Germany and Britain

41 CE – January 24, Caligula, his wife, and his only child are murdered

41-54 CE – Claudius emperor

43-44 CE – Britain brought under Roman rule

54-68 CE – Claudius posisoned by his wife Agrippina, Nero emperor

62 CE – Earthquake at Pompeii and nearby Vesuvian towns

64 CE – Great fire in Rome. Persecution of Christians

65 CE – Conspiracy against Nero by C. Calpurnius Piso is exposed and the plotters, among them Seneca and his nephew Lucan, executed

67 CE – Nero in Greece

68 CE – With revolts blazing in Gaul, Spain, and Africa as well as among the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nero flees and commits suicide

68-69 CE – First crisis of the Empire: year of the Four Emperors Galba, Otho, Vitallius, Vespasian. On July 1, AD 69, Vespasian is proclaimed emperor but almost six months pass before he can eliminate rivals and enter Rome

69-79 CE – Vespasian emperor, initiating Flavian dynasty

70 CE – Titus, elder son of Vespasian, takes Jerusalem and destroys the Temple

79-81 CE – Titus, co-regent since 71, sole ruler after death of his father in 79

79 CE – August 24, eruption of Vesuvius buries Pompeii, Heraculaneum, and Stabiae

80 CE – Great fire in Rome

81-96 CE – Domitian, younger son of Vespasian, becomes emperor

83-85 CE – Campaigns against the Chatti in western Germany; building of border fortifications lines in Germany

86-90 CE – Difficulties with the Dacians settled by making King Decebalus a client-ruler

95 CE – Expulsion of philosophers from Italy

96 CE – Murder of Domitian. The senate elects Nerva emperor.

97 CE – Nerva adopts Trajan as colleague and successor

98 CE – Death of Nerva. Trajan sole emperor. Trajan completes military organization on the Rhine and returns to Rome.

2nd Century CE

101 CE – Trajan’s first campaign on the Danube

102 CE – Trajan forces the ‘Iron Gates’ and penetrates Dacia

104 CE – Conquest of Dacia and death of Dacian King Decebalus.

106 CE – Erection of the Forum and Column of Trajan in Rome. Colonization of Dacia. The Nabatean kingdom of Petra is annexed as the province of Arabia.

114 CE – Trajan advances against Parthia

114-117 CE – Parthian War. Roman victory brings Armenia, Mesopotamia and Assyria as new provinces into the Empire

114-118 CE – Revolt of the Jews in Cyrenaica, Egypt and Cyprus

115 CE – Trajan crosses the Tigris

116 CE – Trajan captures Ctesiphon, but insurrections in his rear force him to retire.

117 CE – Trajan dies at Selinus in Cilicia. Hadrian emperor. Hadrian reverts to policy of non-expansion, and makes peace with Parthia.

118 CE – Partial withdrawal from Dacia

121-125 CE – First voyages of Hadrian: Gaul, Rhine frontiers, Britain (122, Hadrian’s Wall erected in northern England), Spain, western Mauretania, the Orient, and Danube provinces

128-132 CE – Second voyage of Hadrian: Africa, Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Cyrene

131 CE – Hadrian at Alexandria

133 CE – Last organized revolt of the Jews under Bar Kochba and their final dispersion

134 CE – Hadrian at Rome

135 CE – Hadrian nominates Verus as successor

137 CE – Verus dies

138 CE – Hadrian adopts Antoninus. Antoninus adopts Marcus Aurelius. Death of Hadrian. Antoninus emperor.

138-161 CE – Antoninus Pius emperor. Pursues policy of domestic reforms, centralised administration, better relations with Senate, though there is unrest in the provinces. Gradual rise of power of the barbarians along imperial borders.

141-143 CE – Hadrian’s Wall extended into Scotland

161 CE – Death of Antoninus. Marcus Aurelius emperor. Marcus Aurelius makes Verus co-emperor.

162-166 CE – Parthian War

165 CE – Verus takes official command of the east.

166 CE – Unrest in the upper and middle Danube frontiers, where Quadi and Marcomanni in movement. Outbreak of plague. Religious revival. Severe persecution of Christians.

167-175 CE – First Marcomannic War

167 CE – Marcus Aurelius and Verus march against the Quadi who seek and obtain peace.

168 CE – Death of Verus. Marcus Aurelius sole emperor.

169-179 CE – Campaigns of Marcus Aurelius in Pannonia

175 CE – Revolt of Avidius Cassius, who is put to death by his own followers

175-180 CE – Second war against Danube-Germans

177 CE – Marcus Aurelius makes Commodus co-emperor

180 CE – Death of Marcus Aurelius. Accession of Commodus. Commodus makes peace with the Sarmatians and returns to Rome.

183 CE – Plot to kill Commodus discovered. Henceforth he acts as panic-stricken tyrant Power of favourite Perennis.

186 CE – Fall of Perennis. Power of Cleander

189 CE – Fall of Cleander

192  CE –Death of Commodus

193-194 CE – Second crisis of the Empire: second year of four emperors, Pertinax, Clodius Albinus, Pescennius Niger, Septimius Severus

193-211 CE – Septimius Severus emperor, initiating Severan dynasty

194 CE – Severus recognizes Albinus as Caesar but marches against Pescennius. Defeat and death of Pescennius. His followers hold out for two years in Byzantium.

195-196 CE – Parthian campaign

197 CE – Contest of Severus and Albinus. Death of Albinus at Battle of Lugdunum. Severus sole emperor

198 CE – Severus organizes Praetorian Guard under his own command

199 CE – The province of Mesopotamia is brought back into the Empire

199-200 CE – Septimius Severus in Egypt

3rd Century CE

204 CE – Secular Games (Ludi saeculares) celebrated throughout the Empire

206-207 CE – Septimius Severus in Africa

208-211 CE – Septimius Severus heads campaign in Britain and dies there

211-217 CE – Caracalla emperor

212 CE – The Constitutio Antoniniana, issued by Caracalla, confers citizenship on all free men in the Empire

216 CE –War again breaks out in Parthia

217-218 CE – Macrinus and his ten-year-old son Diadumenianus co-emperors after murder of Caracalla

218-222 CE – Elagabalus emperor, reestablishes Severan rule

222-235 CE – Alexander Severus emperor

224-241 CE – Artaxerxes I reigns over the new Persian empire of the Sassanids (or Sasanians)

230-232 CE – Campaign against the Sassanids

235-238 CE – Gordianus I and Gordianus II assume emperorship of North Africa

238-244 CE – Gordianus III emperor

241-271 CE – Sapor I, King of Persia

242-243 CE – Victorious campaigns against the Persians; battles of Resenae, Carrhae, and Nisibis

244-249 CE – Philippus Arabs emperor and his son co-regent 247-249

248 CE – Celebration of millenium of Rome

248-251 CE – Decius emperor

250 CE – Persecution of Christians

251 CE – Decius and his son Herennius Etruscus fall in battle in Abrittus against Goths

251-153 CE – Treborianus Gallus emperor

253 CE – June-September, Aemilianus emperor

253-260 CE – Valerian and his son Gallienus co-emperors, while Valerian campaigns in the East and Gallienus governs the West of the Empire

253 CE – Persian War flares up again, Antioch lost to Persia

254-262 CE – Revolts of Bagaudae, insurgent peasants, in Gaul and Spain

257-260 CE – Persecution of Christian by Valerian

260 CE – Valerian taken prisoner by Persians at Edesa

260-268 CE – Gallienus sole emperor

260 CE – Gallienus extends tolerance to Christians

260-272 CE – Queen Zenobia of Palmyra seizes large areas of Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt and sets up an independant empire until defeated and taken prisoner by Aurelian

261-274 CE – Separatist empire set up in Gaul by Postumus (261-268) and Tetricus (270-274)

268-270 CE – Claudius II Gothicus emperor

270-275 CE – Aurelian emperor

276-282 CE – Probus emperor

282-283 CE – Carus emperor

282-285 CE – Carinus at first co-emperor with Carus and then sole emperor

283 CE – Persian campaign of Carus

284-305 CE – Diocletian and Maximian co-emperors

293 CE – Diocletian creates tetrarchy with himself and Maximian as co-Augusti in the East and West, and Galerius and Constantius Chlorus as co-Caesars

297 CE – The Empire is divided administratively into twelve dioceses, each ruled by a vicarius

4th Century CE

301 CE – The Edict of Maximum Prices imposed throughout the Empire

303 CE – Diocletian persecutes the Christians

305 CE – Diocletian abdicates and forces Maximian to do likewise. Galerius and Constantius Chlorus co-Augusti

306 CE – Constantine declared co-Augustus after death of his father Constantius Chlorus, but Galerius recognizes the Illyrian Severus in that rank and confers the title of Caesar on Constantine

306 CE –Maxentius, son of Maximian, hailed as legitimate successor by the Praetorian Guard and the city of Rome; heads revolt against Constantine. His father comes out of retirement to profit from the situation, first on one side, then on the other

308 CE –At an imperial conference of Diocletian, Galerius and Maximian at Carnuntum Licinius is declared Augustus of teh West, setting off an armed conflict between all rival contenders

310 CE – Maximius Daia, nephew of Galerius, assumes on his own initiative the title of Augustus

311 CE – An edict of tolerance for Christians issued by Galerius shortly before his death

312 CE – Constantine’s victory over Maxentius in battle at the Milvian Bridge puts Rome in his hands

313 CE – Victory of Licinius over Maximinus Daia at the Hellespont is followed by reconciliation of the two victors

313 CE – The co-emperors issue the Edict of Milan ending persecution of Christians

314 CE – Armed conflict breaks out between the co-emperors: truces, claims, counterclaims, and wars follow for ten years with Constantine increasingly victorious

324 CE – Constantine sole emperor after final defeat, abdication, and execution of Licinius

325 CE – The Council of Nicaea formulates Nicene Creed and makes Christianity the religion of the Empire

326 CE – Constantine chooses Byzantium as the new capital of the Empire and renames it Constantinopolis

337 CE – May 22, death of Constantine the Great

337 CE – Division of the empire between Constantine’s three sons: Constantine II (west), Constans (middle), Constantius (east). Execution of all other princes of royal blood, but for the children Gallus and Julian.

338 CE – Constantius attends to the war against Persia. First unsuccessful siege of Nisibis by Sapor II

340  CE –Constans and Constantine II at war. Battle of Aquileia; death of Constantine II.

344 CE – Persian victory at Singara

346 CE – Second unsuccessful siege of Nisibis by Sapor II

350 CE – Third siege of Nisibis. Owing to incursions of the Massagetae in Transoxiana, Sapor II makes truce with Constantius.
Magnentius murders Constans and becomes emperor in the west. Vetranio proclaimed emperor on the Danube frontier. On appearance of Constantius, Vetranio resumes allegiance.

351 CE – Magnetnius defeated at the very bloody Battle of Mursa. Misrule by Gallus, left as Caesar in the east.

352 CE – Italy recovered. Magnentius in Gaul.

353 CE – Final defeat and death of Magnentius

354 CE – Execution of Gallus. Julian at Athens

356 CE – Julian dispatched as Caesar to Gaul. War with teh Alemanni, Quadi and Sarmatians. Military achievements by Julian.

357 CE – Challenge by Sapor II

359  CE –Sapor II invades Mesopotamia. Constantius goes to the east.

360 CE – The Gallic army forces Julian to revolt. Julian marches down the Danube to Moesia.

361 CE – Constantius dies. Julian the Apostate emperor.

362  CE –Christians forbidden to teach. Julian’s advance against Persians

363 CE – Disaster and death of Julian. Retreat of the army which proclaims Jovian emperor. Humiliating peace with Persia. Renewed toleration decree.

364 CE – Jovian nominates Valentinian and dies.
Valentinian associates his brother Valens as eastern emperor and takes the west for himself. Permanent duality of the empire inaugurated.

366 CE – Damasus pope. Social and political influences become a feature of papal elections.

367 CE – Valentinian sends his son Gratian as Augustus to Gaul. Theodosius the elder in Britain.

368 CE –War of Valens with Goths

369 CE –Peace with Goths

369-377 CE – Subjugation of Ostrogoths by Hun invasion

374 CE – Pannonian War of Valentinian. Ambrose Bishop of Milan

375 CE – Death of Valentinian. Accession of Gratian, who associates his infant brother Valentinian II at Milan. Gratian first emperor to refuse the office of Pontifex Maximus. Theodosius the elder in Africa.

376 CE – Execution of elder and retirement of younger Theodosius.

377 CE – Valens receives and settles Visigoths in Moesia.

378 CE – Gratian defeats Alemanni. Rising of Visigoths. Valens killed at disaster at Adrianople.

380  CE –Gratian nominates the younger Theodosius as successor to Valens.

382 CE – Treaty of Theodosius with Visigoths

383 CE – Revolt of Maximus in Britain. Flight and death of Gratian. Theodosius recognizes Maximus in the west and Valentinian II at Milan.

386 CE – Revolt of Gildo in Africa

387  CE –Theodosius crushes Maximus, makes Arbogast the Frank master of the soldiers to Valentinian II

392 CE – Murder of Valentinian II. Arbogast sets up Eugenius.

394 CE – Fall of Arbogast and Eugenius. Theodosius makes his younger son Honorius western Augustus, with the Vandal Stilicho master of the soldiers.

395 CE – Theodosius dies. Arcadius and Honorius emperors.

396 CE – Alaric the Visigoth overruns Balkan peninsula.

397 CE – Alaric checked by Stilicho, is given Illyria.

398 CE – Suppression of Gildo in Afrca

5th Century CE

402 CE – Alaric invades Italy, checked by Stilicho

403 CE – Alaric retires after defeat at Pollentia.
Ravenna becomes imperial headquarters.

404 CE – Martyrdom of Telemachus ends gladiatorial shows.

405-406 CE – German band under Radagaesus invades Italy but is defeated at Faesula

406/407 CE – Alans, Sueves and Vandals invade Gaul

407 CE – Revolt of Constantine III who withdraws the troops from Britain to set up a Gallic empire

408  CE –Honorius puts Stilicho to death. Theodosius II (aged 7) succeeds Arcadius. Alaric invades Italy and puts rome to ransom

409 CE – Alaric proclaims Attalus emperor.

410 CE – Fall of Attalus. Alaric sacks Rome but dies.

411 CE – Athaulf succeeds Alaric as King of the Visigoths.
Constantine III crushed by Constantius

412 CE – Athaulf withdraws from Italy to Narbonne

413 CE – Revolt and collapse of Heraclius

414  CE –Athaulf attacks the barbarians in Spain Pulcheria regent for her brother Theodosius II

415 CE – Wallia succeeds Athaulf

416 CE – Constantius the patrician marries Placidia

417 CE – Visigoths establish themselves in Aquitania

420 CE – Ostrogoths settled in Pannonia 

425 CE – Honorius dies. Valentinian III emperor. Placidia regent.

427 CE – Revolt of Boniface in Africa

429 CE –The Vandals, invited by Boniface, migrate under Geiseric from Spain to Africa, which they proceed to conquer.

433 CE – Aetius patrician in Italy

434 CE – Rugila king of the Huns dies; Attila succeds.

439 CE – Geiseric takes Carthage. Vandal fleet dominant.

440 CE – Geiseric invades Sicily, but is bought off.

441 CE –Attila crosses Danube and invades Thrace

443 CE – Attila makes terms with Theodosius II. Burgundians settled in Gaul.

447 CE – Attila’s second invasion

449 CE – Attila’s second peace.

450 CE – Marcian succeeds Theodosius II. Marcian stops Hun tribute.

451 CE – Attila invades Gaul. Attila heavily defeated by Aetius and Theodoric I the Visigoth at Châlons

452 CE – Attila invades Italy but spares Rome and retires

453 CE – Attila dies. Theodoric II King of the Visigoths

454 CE – Overthrow of the Hun power by the subjected barbarians at the Battle of Netad. Murder of Aetius by Valentinian III

455 CE – Murder of Valentinian III and death of Maximus, his murderer. Geiseric sacks Rome, carrying of Eudoxia. Avitus proclaimed emperor of the Visigoths

456 CE – Domination of both east and west by the masters of the soldiers, Aspar the Alan and Ricimer the Sueve.

457 CE Ricimer deposes Avitus and makes Majorian emperor. Marcian dies. Aspar makes Leo emperor.

460 CE – Destruction of Majorian’s fleet off Cartagena.

461 CE – Deposition and death of Majorian. Libius Severus emperor.

465 CE – Libius Severus dies. Ricimer rules as patrician. Fall of Aspar.

466 CE – Euric, King of the Visigoths, begins conquest of Spain.

467 CE – Leo appoints Anthemius western emperor

468 CE – Leo sends great expedition under Basiliscus to crush Geiseric, who destroys it.

472 CE – Ricimer deposes Anthemius and set up Olybrius. Death of Ricimer and Olybrius.

473 CE – Glycerius western emperor

474 CE – Julius Nepos western emperor. Leo dies and is succeeded by his infant grandson Leo II. Leo II dies and is succeeded by Zeno the Isaurian

475 CE – Romulus Augustus last western emperor. Usurpation of Basiliscus at Constantinople. Zeno escapes to Asia. Theodoric the Amal becomes King of the Ostrogoths

476 CE – Odoacer the Scirian, commander and elected King of the German troops in Italy, deposes Romulus Augustus and resolves to rule independently, but nominally as the viceroy of the Roman Augustus of Constantinople. End of the western empire.

477 CE – Fall of Basiliscus. Restoration of Zeno

478-482 CE – War of Zeno with Ostrogoths, under Kign Theodoric the Amal and Theodoric Strabo

483 CE – Tehodoric recognized as master of the soldiers

484 CE – Revolt of Leontius in Syria

489 CE – Theodoric invades Italy to supplant Odoacer

491 CE – Odoacer, defeated, holds out at Ravenna. Anastasius succeeds Zeno

493 CE – Odoacer capitulates and is murdered. Theodoric King of Italy, nominally viceroy

6th Century CE

502 CE – Persian war of Anastasius

518 CE – Justin succeeds Anastasius to the throne

526 CE – Theodoric dies, succeeded by Athalaric.

527 CE – Accession and marriage of Justinian

529 CE – Justinian’s code

530 CE – Persian incursions Victory of Belisarius at Daras.

532 CE – Nika Riots, suppressed by Belisarius. Peace with Parthia

533 CE – Belisarius obliterates the Vandal Kingdom

534 CE – Justinian’s revised Code. Athalaric dies, succeeded by Theodahad

535 CE – Belisarius in Sicily

536 CE – Theodahad deposed and killed. Wittiges elected. Belisarius captures and holds Rome.

537 CE – Wittiges besieges Rome, Franks invade northern Italy.

538 CE – Wittiges buys of Franks by ceding to them the Roman Provence

539 CE – Belasarius besieges Wittiges at Ravenna.

540 CE – Fall of Ravenna. Belisarius leaves Italy

541 CE – Chosroes invades Syria and sacks Antioch. Goths, led by Totila, begin reconquest of Italy.

542 CE – General paralysis caused by the great plague

544 CE – Belisarius sent to Italy with feeble force

545 CE – Five years truce with Persia

546 CE – Totila captures and evacuates Rome

547 CE – Belisarius reoccupies Rome

548 CE – Belisarius recalled. Totila dominates Italy

550 CE – Justinian’s troops occupy Andalusia. Third Persian War.

552 CE – Narses sent to recover Italy. Fall of Totila at Battle of Taginae.
Introduction of silk-worm from China.

553 CE – Last stand and annihilation of the Ostrogoths

554 CE – Narses shattes a Frank invasion

555 CE – Narses rules Italy from Ravenna

561 CE – End of Persian war

565 CE – Deaths of Justinian and Belisarius. Justin II emperor.

566 CE – Avars and Lombards on the Danube

568 CE – Lombards under Alboin invade Italy

569 CE – Birth of Mohammed

572 CE – Persian war renewd

573 CE – Lombards masters of northern Italy and of provinces in the south, though without a king.

578 CE – Tiberius succeeds Justin II

582 CE – Maurice succeeds Tiberius

584 CE – Authari elected Lombard King

590 CE – Gregory the Great pope. Agilulf Lombard King.

591 CE – Accession of Chosroes II in Persia by help of Maurice. End of Persian war.

595 CE – Wars of Maurice with Avars and others on the Danube

7th Century CE

602 CE – Mutiny and usurpation of Phocas, Maurice killed.

604 CE – Death of Greagory the Great

606 CE – Chosroes II invades Syria as avenger of Maurice. Continuous expansion of Persian power.

609 CE – Revolt of Heraclius the elder in Africa

610 CE – Phocas is overthrown by the Heraclius the younger. Heraclius emperor.

614 CE – Chosroes II completes conquest of Syria by taking Jerusalem, carrying off the true cross

616 CE – Persian conquest of Egypt

620 CE – Persian overrun Asia Minor

621 CE – The eastern empire devotes itself to a holy war against Parthia

622 CE – First Persian campaign of Heraclius who splits Parthian forces of Syria and Asia Minor

623-627 CE – Victorious campaigns of Heraclius in and beyond Mesopotamia

626 CE – Persians and Avars besieging Constantinople are completely repulsed

627 CE – Decisive victory of Heraclius at Nineveh. Mohammed’s letter to Heraclius

628 CE – Fall of Chosroes II. End of Persian War, all Roman possessions restored

632 CE – Death of Mohammed. Abu Bekr First Khalif. First Syrian Expedition.

634 CE – Roman defeat on Yermak

635 CE – Fall of Damascus

636 CE – Fall of Antioch. Heraclius evacuates Syria.

637 CE – Fall of Jerusalem.

640 CE – Amru invades Egypt

641 CE – Heraclius dies. Constans II emperor. Amru takes Alexandria

642 CE – Persian Empire ended at battle of Nehavend

646 CE – Alexandira recovered and lost again.

649 CE – Beginning of the Saracen fleet in the Mediterranean.

651 CE – Moawiya begins invasion of Asia Minor

652 CE – Naval victory of Abu Sarh off Alexandria

655 CE – Naval victory of Constans II at Phoenix

658 CE – Constans II campaigns against Slavs

659 CE – Truce between Moawiya and Constans II

662 CE – Constans II invades Italy

663 CE – Constans II retires from Italy to Syracuss

664 CE – Constans II organizes campaigns in Africa

668 CE – Constans II killed. Constantine Pogonatus emperor. Renewal of the war with Moawiya. Saracen successes in Asia Minor

673 CE – Second siege of Constantinople. Saracens repulsed

673-677 CE – Defeats of Saracens by Constantine

678 CE – Moawiya forced to make peace with Constantine

681 CE –Council of Constantinople condemns Monothelite heresy. Rome reconciled.

685 CE – Constantine dies. Justinian II emperor.

691 CE – Justinian II’s successful campaign in Bulgaria

693 CE – Justinian II’s campaign in Cilicia

695 CE – Justinian II deposed and exiled. Leontius emperor.

698 CE – Saracens cinally capture Carthage. Leontius deposed Tiberius III emperor.

8th Century CE

705 CE – Return and resoriation of Justinian II. Reign of terror to 711.

711 CE – Philippicus kills Justinian II and usurps crown. Saracen fleet takes possession of Sardinia.

711-715 CE – Saracens overrun Asia Minor

713 CE – Fall of Philippicus. Anastasius II emperor.

715 CE – Fall of Anastasius II. Theodosius III emperor.

716  CE –Suleiman prepares grant attack on the empire. Revolt of Leo the Isaurian.

717 CE – Theodosius III abdicates in favour of Leo III. Moslemah besieges Constantinople by sea and land. Leo III defeats fleet.

718 CE – Saracens reinforced. Leo III shatters their fleet, crosses the Bosporus and cuts them off from the east. Bulgarians advance and defeat a Saracen army. Moslemah withdraws. Remnants of Saracen grand fleet destroyed in a storm.

719 CE – Campaigns to expel Saracens from Asia Minor.

726  CE – Leo III prohibits image worship, though cannot enforce edict in Italy. Violent breach with pope Gregory II.

727 CE – Saracen defeat at Nicaea drives them from Asia Minor.

729 CE – Exarch Eutychius marches on Rome.

730 CE – Liutprand imposes pacification of Italy

732 CE – Leo III’s fleet for subjugation of Italy destroyed by storms.

741 CE – Emperor Leo III succeeded by Constantine V Copronymus

753 CE – Iconoclast Council of Constantinople

755 CE – First Bulgar War of Consantine V

761 CE – Constantine begins persecution of the monks

764 CE – Second Bulgar War of Constantine

775 CE – Leo IV succeeds Constantine V

780 CE – Constantine VI succeeds Leo IV. Iconodule reaction under regency of Irene

784 CE – Saracens extort tribute from Irene

786 CE – Haround al-Raschid khalif

790 CE – Constanine VI seizes control by coup d’état.

797 CE – Irene deposes and blinds Constantine VI

9th Century CE

802 CE – Irene deposed. Nicephorus emperor.

811 CE – Nicephorus killed on Bulgar campaign.

812 CE – Accession of Michael. Recognition of the western Holy Roman Empire.

813 CE – Michael deposed by Leo V the Armenian

820 CE – Leo V assassinated. Accession of Michael II

827 CE – Saracens of Tunis invade Sicily and begin its conquest.

829 CE – Theophilus succeeds Michael II

831 CE – Mamun invades Cappadocia. Beginning of prolonged was between empire and khalifate.

842 CE – Saracens in Sicily capture Messina. Michael III the Drunkard, aged four, succeeds Theophilus. Fourteen year Regency of Theodora.

855 CE – Michael III takes control of Constantinople

857 CE – Michael III deposes Ignatius and makes Photius patriarch, denounced by pope Benedict III.

859 CE – Fall of Enna completes Saracen conquest of Sicily

861 CE – Conversion of Bulgars to Christianity

863 CE – Pope Nicholas I excommunicates Patricarch Photius.

866 CE – Synod at Constantinople condemns hereies of the Latin church. Permanent severance of the Latin and Greek churches.

867 CE – Murder of Michael III. Basil the Macedonian first emperor of the Macedonian dynasty.

876 CE – Basil takes up Saracen war in South Italy

878 CE – Saracens take Syracuse, completing conquest of Italy

886 CE – Leo VI the Wise succeeds Basil

10th Century CE

912 CE – Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus succeeds Leo VI

919 CE – Romanus co-emperor with the boy Constantine VII

945 CE – Romanus deposed. Constantine VII sole emperor

959 CE – Constantine VII dies. Romanus II emperor.

961 CE – Crete recovered from the Saracens for the empire. Syrian campaign.

963 CE – Romanus II dies. Nicephorus Phocas emperor, with the children Basil II and Constantine VIII

965 CE – Nicephorus recovers Cyprus from Saracens

968 CE – Nicephorus recovers Antioch

969 CE – John Zimisces murders Nicephorus II and becomes co-emperor. Russians under Sviatoslav invade Bulgaria and Thrace.

971 CE – Zimisces defeats Russians. Russian treaty.

975  CE –Syrian campaign of John Zimisces

976 CE – Zimisces dies. Basil II reigns until 1025.

11th Century CE

1014 CE – Basil II destroys the Bulgar army

1017 CE – Norman adventurers in Italy take part against the Byzantines in the south.

1018 CE – End of the first Bulgar kingdom

1022 CE – Armenian campaigns of Basil II

1025 CE – Basil II dies. Constantine VIII sole emperor

1028 CE – Constantine VIII dies. Zoe with Romanus II succeeds

1034 CE – Romanus III dies. Zoe with Michael VI

1042 CE – Michael IV dies. Zoe with Constantine IX

1054 CE – Theodora empress at Constantinople

1057 CE – Isaac Comnenus emperor

1059 CE – Isaac Comnenus retire. Constantine X Ducas emperor.

1067 CE – Romanus IV co-emperor with Michael VII

1071 CE – Romanus IV defeated at Manzikert by Alp Arslan

1073 CE – Sulayman takes Nicaea

1076 CE – Seljuk Turks seize Jerusalem.

1077 CE – Sultanate of Roum established at Nicaea

1078 CE – Nicephorus II deposes Michael VII Ducas

1081 CE – Alexius Comnenus deposes Nicephorus II Robert Guiscard besieges Durazzo and defeats Byzantines

1095 CE – Alexius appeals to Urban II at Council of Piacenza. The First Crusade proclaimed at Council of Clermont.

1096 CE – Crusade assemble at Constantinople

1097 CE – Crusaders invade Asia Minor, take Nicaea, cross the Taurus, secure Edessa, besiege Antioch

1098 CE – Crusaders take Antioch. Fatimids recapture Jerusalem from the Seljuk Turks.

1099  CE – Crusaders capture Jerusalem. Beginning of the Latin Kingdom.

12th Century CE

1119 CE – John II succeeds Alexius

1143 CE – Manuel succeeds John II

1146 CE – Second Crusade

1148 CE – Collapse of the Second Crusade

1180 CE – Death of Manuel. Succession of Alexius II Comnenus

1183 CE – Usupration of Andronicus Comnenus

1185  CE –Andronicus killed. Isaac Angelus emperor.

1187 CE – Saladin captures Jerusalem

1189 CE – Third Crusade

1192 CE – Treaty of Richard and Saladin ends Third Crusade

1195 CE – Alexius Angelus deposes Isaac.

13th Century CE

1202 CE – Fourth Crusade assembles at Venice, diverted at Constantinople

1203 CE – First capture of Constantinople. Isaac ‘restored’.

1204 CE – Second capture and sack of Constantinople. Crusaders divide the spoils, Venice taking the lion’s share. Baldwin of Flanders emperor

1205 CE – Baldwin killed in Bulgarian war. Henry of Flanders succeeds.

1206 CE – Theodore Lascaris Greek emperor at Nicaea

1216 CE – Death of Henry of Flanders. Accession of Peter of Courtenay

1222 CE – John III Ducas emperor at Nicaea

1229 CE – John of Brienne joint emperor with Baldwin II of Courtenay at Constantinople

1237 CE – Advance of John III Ducas in Thrace. Death of John of Brienne

1246 CE – John III Ducas takes Thessalonica

1254 CE – Death of John III Ducas.

1259 CE – Usurpation of the crown by Michael VIII

1261 CE – Michael VIII captures Constantinople, restoring Greek and ending Latin empire.

1282 CE – Andronicus II succeeds Michael VII

1288 CE – Ottoman Turks in Asia Minor under Othman

14 Century CE

1303 CE – Andronicus II takes into his service Grand Company of Catalans

1328 CE – Death of Andronicus II. Accession of Andronicus III

1341 CE – Andronicus II dies, succeeded by John V

1347 CE – John Cantacuzenus joint emperor

1354 CE – Cantacuzenus abdicates. John V sole emperor. Turks occupy Gallipoli

1361 CE – Turks capture Adrianople

1391 CE – Accession of Manuel II

1425 CE – Manuel II dies. Accession of John VI

1148 CE – John VI dies. Accession of Constantine XI

1451 CE – Accession of Mohammed the Conqueror in the east

1453 CE – Fall of Constantinople to Mohammed the Conqueror. Death of Constantine XI.

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