Trajan: Life, Achievements, and Death of One of the Greatest Roman Emperors

Emperor Trajan, renowned for his military conquests and civic projects, expanded Rome’s empire to its furthest reaches and improved citizens’ lives. Born in the provinces, his reign symbolized the peak of Roman grandeur, blending visionary leadership with a commitment to prosperity and welfare. Trajan’s architectural legacies and strategic expansions underscore his enduring impact on Roman civilization, highlighting a time when Rome flourished by embracing the diversity of its vast territories.

Early Life

Marcus Ulpius Trajanus’s early life in Italica, near Seville, positioned him uniquely as the first emperor of non-Italian origin, marking a significant departure from the traditional Roman power base. Born into an established Umbrian family from Tuder, which had settled in Spain, his lineage was far from provincial, intertwining deep Roman roots with the rich culture of Hispania. His father, also named Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, distinguished himself in the Roman military and political spheres, reaching the senatorial rank, leading the Tenth Legion ‘Fretensis’ in the Jewish War, and serving as consul around AD 70. His roles as governor of Syria and later Baetica and Asia underscored the family’s significant contributions to the empire’s governance.

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Trajan’s military service in Syria, under his father’s governorship, was a foundational period, embedding in him the virtues of Roman military discipline and governance. His subsequent rise to the praetorship in AD 85 and command of the Seventh Legion ‘Gemina’ in Legio (Leon), northern Spain, were important, showcasing his leadership qualities and military acumen. These early experiences, rooted in a blend of military engagement and administrative oversight, laid the groundwork for his ascent to the Roman throne. They imbued him with a profound understanding of the empire’s complexities, from the logistical challenges of military campaigns to the subtleties of provincial administration.

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The backdrop of his upbringing and career in the provinces, far from Rome’s political center, offered him a broader perspective on the empire’s diversity and the importance of integrating its various regions. His command of the Seventh Legion ‘Gemina’ not only underscored his military capability but also his leadership in a strategic part of the empire, highlighting his ability to command respect and loyalty from his legions.

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Trajan’s early career, marked by significant military and administrative milestones, was instrumental in his rise to power. His swift actions in support of Emperor Domitian, despite the later embarrassment due to Domitian’s unpopularity, demonstrated his loyalty and capability, earning him the consulship in AD 91. This period of service, characterized by loyalty to the imperial center and effective governance of key provinces, established Trajan as a formidable leader, respected within both military and political circles.

Rise to Power and the Throne

Trajan’s ascendancy to power and his initial years on the throne encapsulate a trajectory marked by strategic acumen, political insight, and a profound understanding of the Roman military and governance structures. His journey from the command of the Seventh Legion ‘Gemina’ in northern Spain to the pinnacle of Roman power underscores a career built on loyalty, military prowess, and a keen political strategy that navigated the complex landscape of Roman imperial politics.

In the critical years of AD 88/89, Trajan’s decision to march his legion into Upper Germany to quell the rebellion of Saturninus against Emperor Domitian was a crucial moment. Despite the fact that Trajan’s forces arrived too late to participate in the suppression of the revolt, his swift mobilization and allegiance to Domitian earned him considerable favor with the emperor, culminating in his election as consul in AD 91. The political dynamics of Rome, however, were fraught with volatility, and Domitian’s subsequent assassination introduced a period of uncertainty and transition. Trajan’s association with Domitian, while initially beneficial, became a delicate matter to navigate in the aftermath of the emperor’s demise.

The accession of Nerva as Domitian’s successor marked a turning point in Trajan’s career. Nerva’s decision to appoint Trajan as governor of Upper Germany in AD 96, followed by the momentous act of adopting Trajan late in AD 97, was indicative of Nerva’s strategic intent to stabilize and legitimize his rule. This adoption, communicated through a handwritten note, was a masterstroke of Roman political maneuvering, aimed at consolidating imperial authority by aligning it with Trajan’s military prestige and widespread respect among the legions.

Trajan’s response to his adoption and the subsequent transition of power was characterized by a calculated and measured approach. Opting not to rush to Rome, he instead addressed potential threats to stability, notably by dealing decisively with the leaders of a prior mutiny by the Praetorians in Upper Germany, thus sending a clear message regarding the seriousness with which he would govern.

Upon Nerva’s death on 28 January AD 98, Trajan’s ascent to the throne was seamless. His strategic tours of the Rhine and Danube frontiers, engaging directly with the legions, further solidified his support base among the military, ensuring a loyalty that was crucial for the stability of his reign. Trajan’s eventual return to Rome in AD 99 was marked by an unprecedented display of humility and engagement with both the Senate and the Roman populace. His approach to governance, characterized by an assurance to keep the Senate informed and a declaration of ruling in harmony with the people’s freedom, set a new precedent for imperial conduct.

Trajan’s early rule, thus, was not merely a continuation of the status quo; it represented a thoughtful recalibration of the relationship between the emperor, the military, and the broader societal structures of the Roman Empire. His policies and actions in these initial years were foundational in establishing the tone and direction of his reign, which would come to be celebrated for its military conquests, architectural achievements, and administrative reforms. This period solidified Trajan’s reputation as a ruler who skillfully blended military leadership with political acuity, earning him a place among Rome’s most esteemed emperors.

Early Rule of Emperor Trajan

In the nascent phase of his reign, Emperor Trajan distinguished himself not merely through his military and political maneuvers but also through his personal interests and character traits that resonated deeply with Roman societal values. His inclination towards outdoor activities, notably hunting, and traversing the diverse landscapes of the Roman Empire, from dense forests to rugged mountains, showcased a ruler who was not only physically robust but also deeply connected with the natural world. This connection with nature and physical vigor was emblematic of a leader who embodied the Roman virtues of strength, resilience, and endurance.

Trajan’s persona was complemented by an innate sense of dignity and humility, virtues that endeared him to the Roman populace and the Senate alike. His approach to leadership, characterized by a blend of assertiveness and genuine concern for the welfare of his subjects, set a new benchmark for imperial conduct. The emperor’s actions and decisions were guided by a philosophy that prioritized the collective well-being of the empire over personal aggrandizement, a stance that was in stark contrast to some of his predecessors.

The early years of Trajan’s rule were marked by a conscientious effort to engage with all strata of Roman society. His public appearances were not mere formalities but opportunities to foster a sense of unity and shared purpose among the populace. By embracing the physical and symbolic spaces of Rome—the forums, the Senate, and public gatherings—Trajan reinforced the idea of the emperor as a citizen among citizens, albeit with the weighty responsibility of guiding the empire’s destiny.

Moreover, Trajan’s dedication to public works and infrastructure development during the initial phase of his rule underscored his commitment to enhancing the quality of life across the empire. His initiatives were not limited to the architectural marvels that adorned the capital but extended to the far reaches of the Roman world, where roads, bridges, and aqueducts were constructed or restored to facilitate commerce, military logistics, and communication. These projects were tangible manifestations of Trajan’s vision for a prosperous, interconnected empire, unified not just by law and governance but by the physical infrastructure that enabled movement and exchange.

His reign commenced with a focus on stabilizing the empire’s frontiers, consolidating Roman control over contested territories, and initiating campaigns that aimed at expanding the boundaries of Roman influence. However, these military endeavors were always balanced with a keen awareness of the empire’s internal dynamics, ensuring that the expansionist ambitions did not undermine the social and economic foundations of Roman society.


Emperor Trajan is renowned for his monumental contributions to the Roman Empire, which encompassed a broad spectrum of achievements from architectural marvels to significant military victories and social welfare initiatives. His tenure marked a period of expansive public works, including the comprehensive renovation of the Italian road network, where roads traversing wetlands were either paved or elevated on embankments, alongside the construction of numerous bridges. This infrastructural overhaul facilitated not just improved military logistics and trade but also enhanced connectivity within the empire, reflecting Trajan’s vision of a unified and accessible Rome.

One of Trajan’s most notable achievements was the establishment of the alimenta, a welfare program aimed at supporting the empire’s poor, particularly children. This innovative approach to social welfare underscored Trajan’s commitment to the well-being of his subjects, ensuring that future generations would benefit from the empire’s prosperity. The alimenta were not mere charitable acts but strategic investments in the social fabric of the empire, bolstering its economic and demographic health. This system’s longevity, persisting two centuries beyond Trajan’s reign, attests to its effectiveness and the enduring legacy of his policies.

Trajan’s military campaigns, particularly those against Dacia, stand out as defining features of his reign. The conquest of Dacia not only expanded the empire’s boundaries but also secured a significant source of gold and other resources, which funded further public works and military endeavors. The Dacian Wars, immortalized in the intricate reliefs spiraling around Trajan’s Column in Rome, serve as a testament to Trajan’s military prowess and his role in extending Roman influence and prosperity.

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Beyond the tangible achievements of conquests and construction, Trajan’s rule is marked by a profound impact on the Roman ethos and imperial ideology. His approach to governance, characterized by a blend of military leadership, civic-mindedness, and a populist touch, endeared him to both the military and the populace. Trajan’s embodiment of the Roman virtues of strength, justice, and generosity, combined with his active engagement in the lives of his subjects, cultivated an image of the emperor not just as a ruler but as a guardian of the empire’s welfare.

Trajan’s architectural legacy, notably the Trajan’s Forum and the new harbor at Ostia, further exemplified his commitment to enhancing the civic and economic infrastructure of the empire. These projects were not only functional, serving the practical needs of the empire, but also symbolic, reflecting the grandeur and ambition of Roman civilization under his leadership.

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The adoption of his successor, which ensured a smooth transition of power, and his strategic expansions, particularly in the east against the Parthian empire, reflect a ruler keenly aware of both the immediate and long-term needs of his empire. Even as his later campaigns met with challenges, Trajan’s efforts to secure Rome’s frontiers and his administrative reforms laid the groundwork for subsequent periods of stability and growth.

Trajan’s Military Career and Campaigns 

Trajan’s military career and campaigns are important aspects of his legacy, marking him as one of Rome’s most successful military leaders. His tenure as emperor was characterized by significant expansions of the Roman Empire, driven by a series of campaigns that not only secured Rome’s borders but also brought vast territories under Roman control, thereby enriching the empire and solidifying its power across the Mediterranean and beyond.

The most notable of Trajan’s military exploits was the Dacian Wars, a series of confrontations with the kingdom of Dacia, located across the Danube in what is modern-day Romania. These campaigns fought between 101–102 and 105–106 AD, resulted in the complete defeat of the Dacian kingdom and its annexation as a Roman province. The strategic importance of Dacia lay in its wealth of gold mines, which provided a significant boost to the Roman treasury. The successful conquest of Dacia showcased Trajan’s military genius and his ability to execute complex military operations, earning him acclaim both within the military and among the Roman populace.

The triumphs of the Dacian Wars were commemorated in Rome through the construction of Trajan’s Column, a monumental structure adorned with a continuous spiral frieze that depicts scenes from the campaigns. This monument stands not only as a testament to Trajan’s victories but also as an enduring record of Roman military prowess and imperial ambition.

Beyond Dacia, Trajan’s military ambitions extended to the East, where he embarked on a campaign against the Parthian Empire, one of Rome’s long-standing rivals. The Parthian campaign, initiated in 114 AD, aimed at securing Roman influence in the strategically vital regions of Armenia and Mesopotamia. Trajan’s forces achieved initial successes, including the annexation of Armenia and the capture of the Parthian capital, Ctesiphon, in 116 AD. These victories marked the zenith of Roman territorial expansion, extending the empire’s reach to its greatest extent.

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However, Trajan’s eastern conquests were short-lived. The newly acquired territories proved difficult to hold, with revolts and logistical challenges undermining Roman control. The situation was further complicated by Trajan’s failing health, which ultimately forced a strategic withdrawal from the eastern provinces. Despite these setbacks, the Parthian campaign underscored Trajan’s ambitious vision for the empire and his willingness to engage in grand-scale military operations to secure Rome’s place as the preeminent power in the ancient world.

Trajan’s military career is emblematic of his reign as a period of aggressive expansion and consolidation of the Roman Empire. His campaigns not only extended the boundaries of Roman control but also demonstrated the effectiveness of Roman military strategy and logistics. Moreover, the wealth acquired from these conquests was instrumental in funding Trajan’s extensive program of public works, further endearing him to the Roman people.


Trajan’s tenure as emperor was marked by an ambitious expansion of the Roman Empire’s territories, coupled with a significant architectural and urban development that left a lasting impact on the Roman landscape. His reign saw the empire reach its maximum territorial extent, bringing prosperity and stability that benefited the Roman populace.

Building Projects

One of the hallmark achievements of Trajan’s rule was the extensive building projects he undertook, which ranged from the construction of new roads and bridges to the establishment of grand architectural marvels. The most notable among these was Trajan’s Forum, an expansive complex that served as a center of political, commercial, and social life in Rome. This forum included the Basilica Ulpia, one of the largest basilicas in the city, and the Markets of Trajan, a multi-level complex considered to be an ancient precursor to the modern shopping mall. Additionally, Trajan commissioned the construction of a massive new harbor at Ostia, which improved the city’s capacity to manage grain imports, crucial for feeding the population of Rome. These projects not only demonstrated Trajan’s commitment to improving the infrastructure of the empire but also his desire to leave a lasting legacy through monumental architecture.

In the realm of military expansion, Trajan’s campaigns against Dacia and the subsequent annexation of the territory stand as a testament to his military acumen and strategic foresight. The conquest of Dacia provided the empire with valuable resources, notably gold, which funded further building projects and military campaigns. Trajan’s successful campaigns in the east, including the temporary annexation of parts of the Parthian Empire, showcased his ambition to extend Roman influence and secure its frontiers, although these gains proved challenging to maintain in the long term.


A crucial aspect of Trajan’s reign was his choice of heir, which was a significant decision given the absence of a biological successor. Trajan adopted Hadrian, a move that was revealed posthumously through a letter Trajan’s wife, Plotina, claimed was signed by Trajan on his deathbed. Hadrian, who was Trajan’s cousin as well as a respected military leader and administrator, was thus positioned to succeed Trajan, ensuring a smooth transition of power. This decision underscored Trajan’s pragmatic approach to governance and his concern for the empire’s stability beyond his lifetime.


Emperor Trajan’s death in 117 AD in Selinus, Cilicia, heralded the end of a distinguished era of expansion and architectural grandeur for the Roman Empire. After succumbing to a stroke amid health complications suspected to be caused by poisoning, Trajan’s body was cremated in Seleucia, with his ashes placed in a golden urn at the base of Trajan’s Column in Rome. This monument, celebrating his military victories, especially the Dacian campaigns, serves not only as his final resting place but also as a testament to his legacy as a formidable ruler. The urn’s placement within the column in the heart of Trajan’s Forum encapsulates his contributions to the Roman state, symbolizing the military prowess, architectural innovation, and visionary leadership that defined his reign. Trajan’s commemoration through this architectural marvel ensures his enduring memory as one of Rome’s greatest emperors, whose policies and conquests significantly shaped the empire’s history.

Trajan’s Triumph: Rome’s Architectural Visionary

Emperor Trajan’s legacy as a visionary leader and one of Rome’s greatest emperors is immortalized through his military conquests, architectural innovations, and the strategic expansion of the empire. His ascent from the outskirts of Hispania to Rome’s highest echelon showcases his exceptional leadership, deeply rooted in Roman virtues and civic responsibility. The Dacian Wars, the construction of Trajan’s Forum, and the seamless transition of power to Hadrian underscore his commitment to Rome’s prosperity and unity. Trajan’s final resting place in Trajan’s Column symbolizes his indelible mark on the empire, encapsulating an era of unparalleled expansion and cultural enrichment.

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