Shirley Jane Temple is who people called America’s favorite little darling. It was for good reason too. Shirley Temple was an outstanding little girl while growing up and dealing with family, co-workers, and directors.
She was born on April 23, 1928 and died recently on February 10, 2014 at the ripe, old age of 85. The actress’s early life was full of adventure and success, and it started at a very early age of four in Santa Monte, California.
Shirley Temple’s parents were George and Gertrude Temple. Gertrude was a big help and supporter of her daughter. Every single film that Shirley partook in, her mother would do her daughter’s hair, and each time, Shirley had exactly 56 curls in her hair.
Photography helped to spread the word of Shirley Temple, the picture above is a professional one taken for fame purposes (“Beautiful Women” 3). She won an Oscar at the young age of 6 years in 1937. As a child, her idol was Bill Robinson, which she got a chance to perform with when she was older.
The slogan “Daite khleb – Give us bread!” echoed throughout Petrograd as 90,000 people gathered to strike against the tsar, Nicholas Romanov (“February Revolution”). The demonstration began on March 8th, 1917 when working class women marched through the capital’s streets angry over food scarcity, overgrown breadlines, and the seemingly indifferent tsar.
They ardently demanded for change – anything to at least put more food on the table. Evolving into a large scale revolution, the insurgency lasted less than a week, but their influence forced Nicholas to abdicate the throne.
The events leading to the February Revolution had left the nation simmering, and Petrograd was the outlet. Nicholas’s rationing of bread infuriated his subjects.
On top of food scarcity, Russia was poorly equipped to fight in the Great War. The tsar’s command over the army was less than stellar, and while he was commanding troops, he left his German-born wife Alexandra in charge of the country. In addition to these problems, Nicholas’s repeated dissolving of the Dumas, a “workers government” with the final say in the tsar’s laws, fueled the Russian peoples’ anger (“Why”).
The populace was suffering, and his subjects were ready to revolt.
Men’s sports have been around since the ancient times, but what about women’s sports like women’s soccer? Although there have been rumors of women playing soccer much earlier, the major rise of women’s soccer started after 1863 when the English Football Association standardized the rules of the game.
This now safer game became very popular for women all over the United Kingdom, and soon after the rule change, it was almost as popular as men’s soccer (“History of”).
In 1920, two women’s soccer teams played each other in front of a massive crowd of 53,000 people in Liverpool, England.
Although that was a major achievement for women’s soccer, it had terrible consequences for the women’s league in the United Kingdom; the English Football Association was threatened by the size of women’s soccer, so they banned women from playing soccer on the same fields as men.
Due to this, women’s soccer declined in the U.K., which caused a decline in nearby places as well. It wasn’t until 1930, when Italy and France created women’s leagues, that women’s soccer started to rise again. Then, after World War II, countries all over Europe started women’s soccer leagues (“Women in”).
So how did Mardi Gras reach this iconic status? The ironic thing is that one of the key reasons for its success was the huge opposition it faced when it began. The first march took place on Saturday 24th June 1978 at 10pm and it was met with unexpected police violence. What begun as a political demonstration for gay rights, and a desire for greater visibility in the community, has become through a huge effort from the Sydney Homosexual community, a tourist festival and queer culture celebration.
The Stonewall Riots of 1969
While many people are aware of the first march on the 24th of June in 1978, few people realise that this date was the 9th anniversary of the Stonewall riots in America. The Stonewall Riot took place in New York, on the 28th June 1969 when New York City police officers launched a ‘routine’ raid on the Stonewall Inn, a Greenwich Village Gay Bar. The bar’s customers took a stand and fought back, clashing with police and causing a riot. The Stonewall riot came to represent a new movement of open defiance of the heteronormative society.
At this time, in Sydney, homosexuals experienced cultural invisibility and legal discrimination. It is hard to believe at the time that, in Australia, consenting sexual relations were criminalised and policed. This first march in Sydney, 9 years later, was not only a means of the homosexual community remembering and commemorative the Stone wall riots, it was a time to stand up for against harassment in Sydney and Australia.
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