The first castle in Hardwick was commissioned by Charles Walter Stuart 3rd in 1446. His father was the foundly remembered Charles Walter Sturat 2nd, or more fondly called ‘Dicky’.
Every American person should know the old rhyme “You scream! I scream! We all scream for ice cream!” In any country in the world, the word Ice Cream brings to mind memories of summer. Hot hazy days lounging in the shade with a dripping cone of the icy treat.
Ice cream is the ultimate treat but where does it come from? The history if ice cream stretches right across the world. In Italy, it’s called gelato, in India, Kulfi and in Japan its Mochi. Everywhere enjoys ice cream so let’s delve a little deeper into its history.
The Origins of Ice Cream
There are some who say that ice cream came from the Far East, with Marco Polo. Yet others say it was Catherine De Medici who took it to France when she moved there to marry King Henry II.
It’s unlikely that either of these stories is the truth because ice cream goes back much further than that. What we eat now bears almost no resemblance to what ice cream used to be. Passages in the bible refer to King Solomon partaking of cool ice drinks throughout the harvest season.
Alexander the Great from Ancient Greece drank iced drinks that were flavored with wine or honey. Between 54 and 68 BC, while Nero reigned Rome, there were ice harvest from the mountains. The ice was kept in ice houses, which were deep straw covered pits and used to make icy drinks.
The First Frozen Ice Cream
The first instance of anyone eating frozen sweet treats is believed to go back to the Tang Dynasty, between 618 and 907 AD. The emperors were thought to have eaten frozen milk confections, made with milk from cows, buffalo or goats and heated with flour.
Camphor was harvested from evergreen trees and added to give it a flavor and a better texture. The entire mix was then put in metal tubes and stored in ice pools until it was thoroughly frozen.
In the Medieval era, it’s thought that Arabs would drink icy concoctions called sherbet (sharabt in Arabic). This would be flavored with quince, pomegranate or cherry. As time went by, this type of dink would become a favorite of the European aristocracy with the Italians being the first to master it followed by the French.
From Sorbet to Ice Cream
In the 17th century, ice drinks would be made into desserts. Sugar was added and thus we saw Sorbet. The man responsible for writing the first ever recipe for sorbet and also for creating one made with a milk base, was Antonio Latini, a man who worked in Naples, for a Spanish Viceroy. This milk sorbet is commonly considered as the first proper ice cream.
The first Café in Paris, called Il Procope, was opened in 1686 by a Sicilian man called Franceso Procopio dei Coltelli. It because a popular place for intellectuals, such as Benjamin Franklin, Napoleon and Victor Hugo to meet up. It was here that gelato was first served. Gelato is an Italian version of sorbet and was served in tiny eggcup size bowls.
At about the same time, the French were beginning to experiment with something called Fromage. Nicolas Audiger, a French confectioner, wrote a book called La Maison Reglee in which he noted down several different Fromage recipes.
These were made from fruit flavored ice and one that he noted included cream, orange flower water and sugar. He also suggested that if the ice were stirred while it was freezing, air would be introduced and the result would be fluffier.
You could be mistaken for thinking that Fromage was cheese but it wasn’t and it is not clear why they chose this name. One thought is that cheese molds were used to freeze the desserts or it could just refer to the French for any edible substance that had been compressed or molded.
When Ice Cream Arrived in America
We cannot really pinpoint the exact time when ice cream arrived in America. It is widely belied though that is arrived in the early 1700’s, with European settlers. By now there had been a few books published on confectionary, containing recipes for ice creams and ice drinks.
Housewives served these desserts to houseguests, molded in the shape of animal, vegetables and fruits, thanks to special molds that had been developed for the purpose. In 179, New York opened the first ever Ice Cream parlor and in the summer of that year, President George Washington is thought to have spent around $200 (a lot of money back then) satisfying his craving for the sweet icy treat.
Records from his home in Mt Vernon indicate the Washington also owned a few ice cream pots, fashioned from pewter and tin. It’s also recorded that Thomas Jefferson had a few ice houses, capable of being able to hold around 62 wagonloads of ice as well as untold amounts of ice cream.
The Lincolns also gained a taste for ice cream. Before Abraham Lincoln became President and even during his presidential term, his wife, Mary Todd, would hold strawberry parties for friends to celebrate the Berry season. Fresh strawberries would be served with cake and ice cream.
A popular Treat in America
The history of ice cream is firmly embedded in countries across the whole globe and is now very comfortably at home in the States. It is now, quite possibly, the most popular of all desserts and around 9% of all the cow’s milk produced in the country is made into ice cream.
Apple pie may still be considered as popular but it is generally served with a scoop of ice cream on the side. It looks as though, no matter where it started life, ice cream is now planted firmly in the States, and is also a popular treat in many other countries.
There is no doubt about it, drugs do have a long and lasting effect on society, perhaps none more so than those that come under the heading of psychoactive. What is a psychoactive drug though?
The medical definition states that a psychoactive drug is one that has an impact of sorts on the mood, the way of thinking and the behavior of the person taking it. This is done by way of manipulation of the central nervous system.
Human beings have a long history of using these drugs, going back many millennia. While it is not possible to list every single instance of a psychoactive drug being used, we can find some of them. The earliest instances of this type of drug come from plants and fruits that have the ability to alter mood.
The Ancient Civilizations
The Egyptian, the Chinese, the Indians, South Americans and Sumerians, to name but a few of the ancient cultures, used alcohol, opium, cannabis, psychedelic (magic) mushrooms, peyote and coca leaves.
The middle Ages
This was the year of psychoactive plants and much use was made of belladonna and psilocybin mushrooms, mostly by shamans for the purpose of healing. Also widely used were coffee and distilled alcohol.
The most used psychoactive ingredients in this period we tobacco, coffee, distilled alcohol, opium and tea. The tea would have been made from the leaves of certain plants, not tea as we know it today.
Early Industrial Revolution
This was the era when techniques were developed to refine the drugs. They made morphine from opiates; they came up with hypodermic needles and rolling machines for tobacco. All of this served to increase the abuse and the chances of addiction to these drugs.
The drug scene picked up speed, if you will pardon the pun, in this era. We got better at distributing the drugs; we made newer drugs from synthetic ingredients and so began the era of drug regulation. We got prohibition and the exclusion of marijuana and all this served to do increase the use.
The drug business is huge these days, with vast amounts of cash. Believe it or not, terrorism has played its part in exacerbating the situation, opening up new markets and new channels for distribution. Certain countries thrive on the growth of cocaine, cannabis and other such drugs.
When the 21st Centruy dawned, we saw a huge increase in so-called club drugs, such as Ecstasy and GHB although this increase was only for a short time. Instead, alcohol, marijuana and methamphetamines increase in use.
Prescription drugs became the drug of choice, mainly because they were so easy to get hold off. Psychoactive drugs had found their home and they were to stay. Despite early regulations that ruled marijuana illegal, many US states have now declared it a legal substance for medical purposes only.
Psychoactive drugs are generally known either by their trade or street name:
· Uppers – Cocaine, Methamphetamine, caffeine, nicotine.
· Downers – Opioids, heroin, alcohol, sedative hypnotics
· Psychedelics – LSD, MDMA
· Psychiatric medications – anti-biotic, mood stabilizers, anti-anxiety drugs
The history of hallucinogenic drugs goes back around 2000 years. The Native Indian used the Peyote cactus, psilocybin mushrooms were used by the Mayans while the use of Cannabis began in 3000BC in China.
It is widely believed that psychoactive and hallucinogenic drugs were largely responsible for the creation of some cultures. They were a major influence of art and religion for the Mayans. Peyote is thought to have been the influence of religion of the Huichol Indians in Mexico. The list could go on because, somewhere though history, psychoactive drugs have had a major influence on society in one way or another.
The Food that you eat
What may be worrying is that many of the common psychoactive ingredients can be found in the food you consume on a daily basis. Coffee, tea and chocolate, not to mention anything with alcohol or tobacco in it. Many prescription drugs, though they may seem to be relatively harmless, also contain psychoactive ingredients. So, the next time you feel higher than normal or inexplicably down, take a look at what you are consuming for the answer first.
The internet is a relatively new invention but boy have things changed in its short life! The internet has changed the way we live and it has been responsible for the creation of thousands upon thousands of jobs that simply would not exist without it.
One of those categories of job is web design, something that we would sorely miss now if it disappeared. What would we do without the animations? The colorful backgrounds, the fancy writing and the music playing in the background?
When did it Begin?
In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee developed the very first web browser, and it was called WorldWdeWeb, although it was later renamed as Nexus. At that time, only text could be displayed on a web page. No fancy fonts, no pretty pictures or videos, just simple plain text, with links underlined in blue.
In 1993 Mosaic was released, the first ever web browser that allowed developers to add images to their web pages. It was able to support .gif images and web forms, a massive leap forward for the time.
Design was not brilliant because of the constraint of the browser and to a limit in bandwidth programmers rather than designers designed most websites.
Mid 1990’s to 2000
By the mid-nineties, Netscape was the top web browser but it was soon knocked off its pedestal by internet Explorer and so began the war of the browsers. Around this time, web design began to get a little more complex, using frames and tables as well as images.
From 1998, we began to see the introduction of web development tool kits. Remember DreamWeaver? GoLive? These began to be more popular as they gave a larger number of users access to web page creation.
Jobs in web design began to grow as more designers were offered jobs to build sites. Flash technology also made its appearance during this era of web site design although it was not all that popular to start off with.
In the year 2000, the bubble burst and hundreds of thousands of web businesses crashed. However, while this may have put the clamps on things for a while, it was not for long. Web design standards began to pick up again.
Now we started to see a better class of design. We got designs that were not based on tables, we got transparency with .png images and CMS began to grow in popularity. Content management System was a program that allowed designers to publish content on the web. They could go back in and edit what they had published and modify it as they saw fit.
2004 – 2007
Web 2.0 was born in 2004. This was the era of bold websites, sites that were aimed at communities. There was bold typography and shiny gradients. Corners became rounded, edges softened and web design, once again, took off at the speed of light.
Websites began to be more functional and needed more in the way of an interface to work properly. Widgets were introduced all over the place to help integrate one site with another. This was more often, where a social network site was involved, lining outside feeds to the site, or lining from the site to a blog.
2008 to the Present
Web site design has evolved incredibly over the last few years and one thing that has given it a push, unbelievably, was the iPhone. Mobile website design was introduced, allowing people to view sites properly on their phones.
Many of the bigger websites created mobile versions of their sites specifically for the smartphone and the tablets that were fast becoming popular devices. On the internet itself, the large and fast growing social network sites created more widgets for user to put on their blogs and other websites created widgets designed to go on social network sites.
In design, typography increased tremendously and grid-based designs are fast becoming the norm.
Today, website design is a huge business. Designs are more complex yet less cluttered. Early websites were difficult to navigate; today, a well-designed website is enough to ensure your business will succeed.
In terms of design, where the internet goes from now is anyone’s guess. We have color, we have fonts and we have images. We can even embed videos into websites now so who knows where the next trend will take us.
The iPhone is one of the world’s most iconic devices and, in the grand scheme of things, it isn’t very old. But when did it begin? Where did the idea come from?
The very first iPhone was unveiled in January 2007 at the MacWorld convention. Steve Jobs revealed what Apple had been developing for nearly 3 years and, for its time, it was pretty mid blowing.
The device was introduced as an iPod with a wider screen, controlled by touch instead of physical buttons. In short, it was a mobile phone and a device to communicate with the internet. At the time, Jobs told the audience that this device would “reinvent the phone”.
While revealing the design of this new device, Jobs took time out to make fun of the current smartphones on the market, ones that relied on a physical keyboard and were unwieldy to use. He showed off how simple it was to control a phone using simple touch gestures on a screen and the audience were hooked.
7 years on, from that unveiling, the iPhone is still top of the hill. At one time, market shares did start to decline, especially as they were under constant attack from cheaper smartphones, such as Samsung and LG. However, there last couple of devices have seen that share shoot straight back up, allowing Apple to keep on polishing their crown.
So, to commemorate 7 years of the iPhone we’re going to look at each different iteration that Apple released:
1. June 29th 2007 – First iPhone, called iPhone 2G, released
The iPhone 2G was a GSM model and dictated the future of the form factor for the iPhone. Since its release, Apple has stayed with the same form, only making minimal changes. When it was released, it earned the nickname, the “Jesus Phone” because people were so amazed at its capabilities.
The iPhone 2G was released in 3 separate storage models – 4 GB, 8 GB and 16 GB.
2. July 11th 2008 – iPhone 3G
Following on just a year after the first one, Apple released their second iPhone. They introduces a couple of new features, like Assisted GPS and a 3G connection. The iOS was given an update and now included features such as Push email and turn-by-navigation. This was the first iPhone to be accompanied by the revolutionary new Apple App store, where users could find third-party apps to help them in their day to day use of the iPhone.
3. June 19th 2009 – iPhone 3GS
The iPhone 3GS was the first iPhone to receive an interim update, denoted by the S. Apple produced an upgraded 3G with a faster processor. It had a much higher resolution camera on it that could capture an astonishing (for its time) 480p video and support was included for voice controls.
4. June 24th 2010 – iPhone 4
Apple broke the mold with the iPhone 4, making it the very first to have an incredible high-resolution display, known as Retina. As well as that, they gave the iPhone camera an update, making it 5 megapixel and they added in a front camera for video calling.
This was the first iPhone to receive a design change, the rounded rear panel replaced with a flat one, giving the iPhone the honor of being classed as the thinnest smartphone in the world. The phone was given a stainless steel frame and a brand new, all-singing, all dancing A4 processor, designed to help with the multitasking functions.
5. October 14th 2011 – iPhone 4S
Apple changed their release cycle with the iPhone 4S, moving it to the fall rather than summer months. The iPhone 4s proved to be the best that Apple had ever released. It got a camera upgrade, to the 8 megapixel iSight camera that we know and love today, with the ability to record video at 1080p.
It got a brand new processor, the A5 dual core chip and it got Siri. Siri is Apple’s very own intelligent voice assistant that changed the way we used our iPhones. With the iPhone 4S we got access to iCloud and iMessage. We got a notification center and reminders and Apple even gave is Twitter integration.
The iPhone 4S was released just 9 days after the death of Steve Jobs after he lost his battle with pancreatic cancer.
6. September 21st 2012 – iPhone 5
When the iPhone 5 was released, it broke all sales records to date. And no wonder. It had a dual core A6 chip in it. The display grew to 4” and the 30-pin connector that they had always used was gone, replaced with a digital lightning connector.
The iPhone 5 got an aluminum frame instead of stainless steel, making it lighter than ever before. It was also the very first iPhone to include LTE support.
7. September 20th 2013 – iPhone 5S and iPhone 5C
For the first time ever, Apple released 2 iPhones in one hit. The iPhone 5C is an upgraded version of the iPhone 5 with a polycarbonate shell in 5 different colors. The iPhone 5S was a work of art, the new flagship for Apple.
Not only did it contain a revolutionary new processor, the A7 64-bit – twice as fast as the iPhone 5 – it also contained another processor, the M7 Motion Control coprocessor. It had Touch D, a fingerprint sensor embedded in the Home button.
The camera was given a bigger aperture and a dual LED flash and the iPhone 5S got the privilege of being the first to run on the all-new iOS 7 firmware. At the time of release, the iPhone 5 was discontinued, a little more than a year after release.
So. What’s next? There will be another iPhone this year, maybe 2 if rumors are correct. The rumor mill is over spilling with news of Apple releasing iPhones with larger screens, perhaps 4.7”, although some say 5”.
All we can do is wait and see because Apple sure aren’t giving away any hints.
The first castle in Hardwick was commissioned by Charles Walter Stuart 3rd in 1446. His father was the foundly remembered Charles Walter Sturat 2nd, or more fondly called…
Every American person should know the old rhyme “You scream! I scream! We all scream for ice cream!” In any country in the world, the word Ice Cream…