Who Invented Windshield Wipers? Origins of the Window Cleaning Device

In the realm of automotive advancements, few inventions blend simplicity with lifesaving functionality as effectively as the windshield wiper. A device so integral to modern vehicles, it owes its existence to an inventive spirit who saw beyond the conventions of her time.

From its early 20th-century creation to its vital presence in today’s vehicles, the evolution of the windshield wiper is a compelling tale of innovation, overcoming challenges, and lasting influence.

Who Invented Windshield Wipers?

Mary Anderson, an innovative thinker of the early 20th century, is credited with inventing the automatic wiper system, a pivotal development in automotive history.

READ MORE: Car Technology Innovations That Changed Driving

It was said that while riding in a trolley car on a visit to New York, she observed the trolley driver struggling to maintain visibility through the multi-pane windshield system during an electric storm. This experience sparked her ingenuity, leading her to conceptualize a window-cleaning device that would later transform the automotive world.

This significant leap in vehicle safety and driver convenience brought about a seemingly simple device that is now a standard feature in automobiles worldwide. Anderson’s ingenuity and foresight laid the groundwork for this essential invention, whose contribution remained relatively unsung for decades.

In the early 20th century, when horse-drawn carriages were giving way to motorized vehicles like Henry Ford’s Model T, a critical issue emerged: maintaining clear visibility during inclement weather.

Drivers often had to stop and manually clear their windshields of rain, snow, or sleet, a process both cumbersome and hazardous. The need for an efficient solution was evident, paving the way for an invention that would revolutionize the driving experience.

The story of windshield wipers intertwines with the broader narrative of automotive evolution. As cars became faster and more widespread, the demand for better safety measures grew. In this context, the development of an automatic device to clear the windshield was not just an innovation; it was a necessity.

This breakthrough not only enhanced driver convenience but also significantly improved road safety, laying the groundwork for future advancements in automotive technology, such as the steering wheel innovations.

In 1903, Anderson invented the windshield wiper, a pioneering invention that featured a spring-loaded arm with a rubber blade. This invention was designed to be operated manually from inside the vehicle, ensuring that drivers could clear their windshields without exposing themselves to harsh weather conditions. Her design, initially called the “electric storm windshield cleaner,” was a groundbreaking step in automotive safety.

The windshield wiper blade invented by Anderson was unique for its time. It employed a simple, yet effective mechanism that could swipe across the windshield, removing rain or snow. The wiper arm was part of a larger system that could be removed during good weather, showcasing Anderson’s attention to practicality and user convenience.

However, Anderson’s journey as the inventor who invented the windshield wiper was not without its challenges. Despite the obvious utility of her invention, she faced skepticism and resistance in a market still adapting to the rapid pace of automotive innovation. Her patent for the automatic wiper system though acknowledged as a critical advancement, struggled to gain immediate commercial traction.

Anderson’s invention laid the groundwork for what would become the mechanical windshield wipers in later years. Her foresight in envisioning a device that could enhance driver safety and comfort heralded a new era in automotive design. The concept of an effective windshield cleaning system, starting with her simple yet revolutionary design, has evolved into an essential feature in modern vehicles, underscoring the lasting impact of her contribution.

READ MORE: Inventions by Women: Cataract Treatment, Syringes, Rocket Fuel, and More!

When Were Windshield Wipers Invented?

The genesis of windshield wipers dates back to the early 20th century, a period characterized by rapid technological advancements and the flourishing growth of the automobile industry. In 1903, Mary Anderson’s groundbreaking invention received official recognition in the form of a U.S. patent, signifying a pivotal moment in automotive history.

This era witnessed the transformation of transportation, with motor vehicles gradually replacing horse-drawn carriages. The streets began to buzz with an increasing number of automobiles, each vying for innovation in design and functionality. It was during this transformative phase that Anderson’s invention emerged, addressing a critical need for enhanced visibility in adverse weather conditions.

The introduction of windshield wipers in 1903 marked a significant leap forward in automotive technology. Anderson’s patent number US743801A, officially titled “Window Cleaning Device,” was registered at a time when cars were just beginning to assert their presence on roads. Her invention was not immediately embraced by the automotive industry, a reflection of the period’s initial hesitation to adopt new technologies.

This period of invention and innovation coincided with a larger shift in societal and industrial landscapes. The dawn of the 20th century was ripe with technological breakthroughs, each contributing to the shaping of the modern world.

How Did Mary Anderson Lose Her Patent for the Windshield Wiper?

Mary Anderson’s journey with her invention, the windshield wiper, took a turn after securing the patent for her “Window Cleaning Device” in 1903. Despite the ingenuity of her design, which featured a spring-loaded arm, Anderson faced significant challenges in commercializing her invention.

Her innovative approach would later earn her recognition in the National Inventors Hall of Fame, yet during her time, her immediate commercial prospects were limited.

The automotive industry was in its infancy during this period, and the concept of windshield wipers was yet to be recognized as a crucial safety feature. Anderson approached several companies with her invention, but the initial response was underwhelming. Most manufacturers failed to foresee such commercial value of the windshield wiper, viewing it as an unnecessary accessory that might distract drivers.

As Anderson navigated these commercial hurdles, the patent’s 17-year protection was ticking away. Her efforts to sell or license the patent were met with limited interest, a consequence of the contemporary market’s inability to grasp the windshield wiper’s potential significance. By the time the automotive industry began to appreciate the value of her window-cleaning device, Anderson’s patent expired.

In 1920, when the patent lapsed, the automotive world was rapidly evolving. Cars were becoming more common, and the need for effective windshield-clearing systems became evident, especially in regions experiencing harsh weather conditions.

Manufacturers started integrating windshield wipers, similar to Anderson’s design, into their vehicles. However, with the expiration of her patent, Anderson could not capitalize on this surge in demand.

This loss of patent rights highlights a broader narrative of early inventors who struggled to bring their innovations to market. Anderson’s spring-loaded arm mechanism for the windshield wiper would eventually become a standard feature in automobiles but without the financial benefits or recognition due to her during the patent’s effective period.

Her experience underscores the challenges inventors often face in protecting and profiting from their innovations, especially in times of rapid technological change.

Impact of Windshield Wipers on Road Safety

The introduction and subsequent evolution of windshield wipers have had a profound impact on road safety, dramatically improving visibility for drivers in adverse weather conditions. This enhancement in visibility has been instrumental in reducing accidents and enhancing overall driver safety.

Before the widespread adoption of windshield wipers, drivers frequently faced impaired visibility during rain, snow, or sleet, leading to hazardous driving conditions. The inability to see clearly through the windshield significantly increased the risk of accidents, as drivers struggled to navigate roads safely. The introduction of windshield wipers mitigated these risks by providing a clear view, even in challenging weather.

Statistical analyses underscore the importance of windshield wipers in road safety. Studies have shown a marked decrease in weather-related accidents following the adoption of windshield wipers as a standard feature in vehicles. This correlation highlights the crucial role of clear visibility in preventing collisions and ensuring safer road conditions.

The significance of windshield wipers extends beyond their functional role; they symbolize the ongoing commitment to road safety and technological innovation in the automotive sector. As vehicles continue to evolve with advanced features and autonomous capabilities, the foundational role of windshield wipers in ensuring driver safety remains a critical aspect of automotive design.

Legacy of Mary Anderson and Her Invention

The legacy of Mary Anderson and her invention of the windshield wiper extends far beyond the realms of automotive engineering and safety. Her contribution has earned a distinguished place in both historical and scientific communities, recognizing her not only as an inventor but also as a trailblazer who paved the way for future innovations.

Anderson’s recognition in historical annals has grown over time, with her story often cited as an inspiring example of ingenuity and perseverance. She is celebrated not only for her technical invention but also for breaking barriers in a male-dominated field at a time when female inventors were rarely acknowledged. Her story is a powerful testament to the potential of creativity and determination, irrespective of gender.

The influence of Anderson’s invention on subsequent automotive developments is profound. Her windshield wiper laid the groundwork for a multitude of safety features that are now standard in vehicles. This invention was a catalyst for recognizing the importance of driver visibility, inspiring further safety innovations, and contributing to the development of safer, more reliable vehicles.


Mary Anderson’s invention of the windshield wiper stands as a testament to human ingenuity and its profound impact on safety and technology. From a simple yet effective design, this invention has evolved into a crucial component of modern vehicles, enhancing visibility and road safety. Anderson’s story, marked by creativity and resilience, continues to inspire and shape the fields of automotive engineering and STEM. Her legacy, embedded in every vehicle we drive today, reminds us of the power of innovation to transform our world, one clear vision at a time.

How to Cite this Article

There are three different ways you can cite this article.

1. To cite this article in an academic-style article or paper, use:

James Hardy, "Who Invented Windshield Wipers? Origins of the Window Cleaning Device", History Cooperative, January 8, 2024, https://historycooperative.org/who-invented-windshield-wipers/. Accessed July 15, 2024

2. To link to this article in the text of an online publication, please use this URL:


3. If your web page requires an HTML link, please insert this code:

<a href="https://historycooperative.org/who-invented-windshield-wipers/">Who Invented Windshield Wipers? Origins of the Window Cleaning Device</a>

Leave a Comment