Who Invented Cheese? The History and Evolution of Cheese

Who doesn’t love the tasty, yellow, sticky stuff on burgers?

Much like the process of turning milk into the savory delight we call cheese, the invention of cheese itself is shrouded in tradition and mystery.

While it is impossible to credit cheese invention to a single individual, it evolved from necessity and has been perfected by many cultures throughout history.

Who Invented Cheese?

The exact individual who invented cheese is lost to history, but its origins can be traced back to an era when storing milk was challenging.

The consensus among historians is that cheese was likely first created by accident when early humans discovered that certain storage methods led to milk turning into a solid, edible form.

Safe to say, these early pioneers of cheese-making would be astonished by the modern cheese industry.

When Was Cheese Invented?

Cheese is one of humanity’s ancient foods, said to have its roots over 7,000 years ago. Possibly invented by chance when milk was transported or stored in containers made from a sheep’s stomach, the natural enzymes caused the milk to separate into curd and whey.

It quickly became apparent that this curdled milk could be preserved much longer than its liquid counterpart – an innovative way to preserve milk in times predating modern refrigeration.

Where Does Cheese Come From?

The birthplace of cheese is believed to be the Middle East or Central Asia, where dairy farming was common, and the climate necessitated inventive methods for storing milk. As the art of cheese-making spread to Europe, it became popular particularly within the Roman Empire and later throughout the Middle Ages, leading to the artisan cheese we recognize today.

READ MORE: The Cradle of Civilization: Mesopotamia and the First Civilizations and Ancient Civilizations Timeline: The Complete List from Aboriginals to Incans

What is the Oldest Cheese?

The title of the oldest known cheese might go to remnants found in an Egyptian tomb dating back to 3200 B.C. These early cheeses would have been quite different from modern varieties, probably more akin to sour, salty, and rough-textured curdled milk products like cottage cheese.

READ MORE: Ancient Egyptian Food: More Than Beer and Bread

Did Native Americans Make Cheese?

While Native Americans did not traditionally make cheese before European contact, they had various other means of preserving and consuming milk from animals they domesticated. Post-contact, some Native American communities may have adopted cheese-making from European settlers.

Cheese Production Through Time

The production of cheese has been integral to many cultures throughout history. Different methods for salting curdled milk, aging, and adding specific molds for varieties like blue cheese were all discovered and improved over time. With the advent of the cheese factory and industrialization, cheese production evolved from a household craft into an industry with standardized practices.

First Cheese Factory

The first cheese factory in the United States was established in 1851 by Jesse Williams in Oneida County, New York. This marked the beginning of the shift from farmstead cheese factory operations, where dairy farming and cheese making were completed in one place, to a centralized model that could handle the milk produced by many dairy farmers.

Processed Cheese and the Modern Cheese Factory

The invention of processed cheese by Walter Gerber and Fritz Stettler in 1911 revolutionized the cheese industry. Cheese factories became a common sight, pioneering the large-scale production and standardization of cheese making. These established factories optimized the cheesemaking process by employing pure microbial cultures, mass-produced rennet, and controlled fermentation techniques.

The cheese industry has seen tremendous growth and evolution over the centuries from small-scale farmstead production to large industrial operations. The industry has been responsive to changes in consumer demand, dietary trends, and regulatory frameworks. Innovation, such as the development of processed cheese and mass-produced rennet, has made cheese more accessible while also playing into the complexities of food science. As the cheese industry expands, it grapples with balancing traditional methods with the efficiencies of modern production.

The Artistry of Artisan Cheese

Artisan cheese represents the pinnacle of craftsmanship in cheese production, often reflecting the traditions and environmental nuances of the regions where they are created.

Cheesemakers who specialize in artisanal products typically work with small batches, prioritizing quality over quantity. Artisan cheeses are often made using time-honored methods, which might include exclusively using milk from the cheese maker’s herd or local sources, relying on natural fermentation processes, and eschewing artificial additives. The signature of an artisanal cheese is its unique character, which can vary from one batch to the next.

Unwrapping the Mystique of Green Cheese

The phrase “green cheese” is not a literal description of the product but an old expression referring to young or not fully matured cheese. Despite its nature, green cheese can still offer a delightful array of flavors, usually milder and softer than those found in aged varieties. Historically, this term has been clouded with folklore and has nothing to do with the color of the cheese itself; it’s more about the ripeness and the freshness of the new cheese.

Cheese Racks

The aging of cheese on racks is a crucial process that contributes to the development of taste and texture. Cheese racks provide the perfect environment for maturing cheeses, ensuring consistent airflow and temperature control, which are vital for the development of flavor profiles.

Various cheeses require different aging methods and durations. While some soft cheese may need only a few weeks on a rack to achieve perfection, hard cheese can spend years maturing before reaching peak quality.

Foreign Cheeses

Cheese enthusiasts often indulge in discovering and tasting foreign cheeses, which can offer a wide range of flavors, textures, and cultural history. From the pungent Roquefort of France to the creamy Gorgonzola of Italy, and the sharp Cheddar of England, every region contributes its signature to the global cheese platter.

Which State is Known as the Cheese State?

Wisconsin is known as the “cheese state” for its longstanding history and contemporary status as a top cheese producer in America. Many Wisconsin farmers continue the tradition of cheese making, with their heritage often linked to Swiss immigrants who brought their cheesemaking skills.

Green County, in particular, is renowned for its numerous cheese factories and has earned the title ‘the big cheese’ of the region.

This cultural identity around cheese is a source of pride for Wisconsinites, reflecting the rural and agricultural roots that have played a significant role in the development of the state’s identity.

Revelations in Milk Preservation

Historically, one of the most crucial concerns for dairy farmers was preserving the freshness of milk. Before the advent of refrigeration and pasteurization, milk had to be quickly consumed or transformed into a more stable form such as cheese. The invention of cheese allowed for a valuable and nutritious food source to be stored safely for extended periods.

The simple act of turning perishable milk into long-lasting cheese was a significant breakthrough that transformed milk into a traded and valuable commodity.

Cheesemaking’s Spread Across Continents

As cheesemaking practices spread from their regions of origin, they were often adapted to fit the climate, culture, and available resources of new areas. From the Middle East, cheesemaking spread to Europe during the early ages, where it thrived and became a mainstream skill among monastic communities.

Eventually, with the age of exploration and colonization, European settlers introduced cheesemaking to the Americas and other parts of the world.

The Use of Pure Microbial Cultures

The advent of pure microbial cultures was a pivotal moment in the history of cheese. Once cheese makers understood the role of bacteria in the fermentation process, they were able to isolate and reproduce cultures that would yield consistent results. This control over the microbial environment enables the production of specific cheese varieties with the desired flavor and textural characteristics reliably batch after batch.

Celebrating Dairy Farming and Its Cheesemakers

Dairy farming is at the heart of cheese production, providing the essential raw material: milk. Dairy farmers play a crucial role in the cheesemaking ecosystem, and their commitment to animal welfare and milk quality directly influences the final product’s caliber.

Cheesemakers, whether working on a small artisanal scale or in large factories, often form a deep connection with the source of their milk, recognizing the importance of sustainably sourcing and maintaining a close relationship with dairy farmers.

Cheese as a Cultural Phenomenon

Cheese goes beyond being just a staple dairy product; it is a cultural phenomenon that carries social and historical significance. The various types of cheese are often associated with the identity and heritage of the regions where they are produced.

This cultural aspect of cheese is celebrated in festivals, cultural events, and educational efforts by organizations like the British Cheese Board, which aim to preserve and promote the tradition of cheese making and its role within society.

The Legacy and Future of Cheese Making

The history of cheese is one of innovation, craft, and scientific advancement. From handcrafted cheeses produced by English Puritan dairy farmers to the rise of Green County as the “big cheese” of the cheese state Wisconsin, the journey of cheese echoes humanity’s progression.

The industry continues to thrive, adapting to consumer demand and food science, with many cheeses now being mass-produced using sophisticated technologies.

Savoring the Past, Cultivating the Future

Cheese will always continue to live on.

As long as there are pizza and hamburgers to be enjoyed, it isn’t going anywhere.

Bread and cheese is one of the most simple combinations in food history. It has filled stomachs in the past and will continue to do so. Because, hey, it’s tasty and gets the job done.

References:

https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=h6owDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR10&dq=roman+empires&ots=8NvyQQGMyS&sig=TVky_c4ORSCfsf_TlVSZHHKH5lU

https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=H46jEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT19&dq=Middle+Ages&ots=CvT6QuCHut&sig=xzpNEQl2b5ZrAW4ksl-0Fwif1wI

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.2307/141547

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