Who Invented the Rubik’s Cube? The Real Story of the Brain Box

The Rubik’s Cube, a compelling puzzle that enthralled generations, owes its existence to the inventive genius of Ernő Rubik.

This Hungarian professor created what would later become a pop culture phenomenon and a symbol of intellectual prowess.

Who Invented the Rubik’s Cube?

Ernő Rubik, a Hungarian professor of Architecture, invented the Rubik’s Cube. In 1974, while contemplating the structural challenges of movable parts independently without causing the entire structure to collapse, Rubik engineered a 3x3x3 cube with rotating faces.

From the halls of the Academy of Applied Arts in Hungary to the vibrant playgrounds of international toy fairs, his invention has left an indelible mark on the world.

Not merely content with having invented the cube, Ernő Rubik’s enthusiasm for education and problem-solving has continued to inspire. His dedication to developing spatial logic toys and his work as a classroom teaching tool innovator remains influential.

Termed initially as ‘Magic Cube’ or ‘Buvos Kocka‘ in Hungarian, this invention was primarily aimed at helping his students understand three-dimensional problems.

Rubik, also involved in the design, commissioned a local company to produce his device. After seeing the potential for its use in the international market, Rubik decided to patent his invention.

The Nuremberg Toy Fair was pivotal in transforming the Magic Cube from a teaching aid to an iconic color-matching puzzle. It was here that the path to experiencing the cube’s thumb-twisting action at Christmas trees and living rooms worldwide was cemented.

This fair, representative of the many international toy fairs, paved the way for the cube’s journey from a behind-the-Iron Curtain curiosity to a global phenomenon.

The Rubik’s Cube took a new turn when Spin Master acquired the brand. This acquisition saw the cube represented in a new light.

The global popularity of the Rubik’s Cube surged in the 1980s, captivating an array of individuals, from school-aged children to adults.

Who Was the First Person to Solve the Rubik’s Cube?

While Ernő Rubik is the inventor of the Rubik’s Cube, he was also the first to solve it. Initially, Rubik invented the cube to demonstrate spatial relationships to his students, and once he scrambled the cube, he found it to be a puzzle. It reportedly took him a month to solve his creation and realign the cube’s colors.

Once it was marketed globally, the Rubik’s Cube quickly generated an ardent following. Many enthusiasts, known as ‘cubers,’ dedicated their time and intellect to solving the cube, each aiming for an efficient solution.

Even as the original cube gained popularity, Ernő Rubik and his brand, Rubik’s Puzzles, continued to innovate. The Rubik’s brand grew to include related toys that captured the same brain-bending elegance—through challenges that didn’t complicate anymore the core appeal but added layers to the problem-solving experience.

Ernő Rubik and the Ideal Toy Company

The collaboration with the Ideal Toy Company was a match that would change the fate of the cube. Rubik regularly worked alongside the company to make his creations accessible. This union led to innovations in product design, creating a cube that was not initially complicated anymore by fragile parts; instead, it boasted rounded elements that ensured a smoother action.

The Ideal Toy became a cornerstone in spreading what we now know as the popular puzzle toy.

Rubik’s Inclusion in the National Toy Hall

The significance of Rubik’s creation is encapsulated by its induction into the National Toy Hall of Fame. Here, the cube sits alongside childhood staples like Hot Wheels and the Hula Hoop, proving that a straightforward form can have as much, if not more, impact than the most elaborate toys on the market.

Who Solved the Rubik’s Cube the Fastest?

Since its inception, the Rubik’s Cube has led to intense competition among its enthusiasts. The current holder of the world record for the fastest solution is Yusheng Du, a cuber from China. On November 24, 2018, he startled the cubing world by solving the 3x3x3 cube in a mere 3.47 seconds during a competition in Wuhu, China.

The previous record held by Feliks Zemdegs, an Australian Rubik’s Cube speed solver, was 4.22 seconds. With the concoction of manual dexterity, advanced solving methods, and a great deal of practice, cubers continually push the boundaries of the possible, turning the act of solving a Rubik’s cube into an artistic and athletic pursuit.

The Science Behind the Rubik’s Cube

Beyond the colorful exterior lies a science deeply rooted in mathematics, geometry, and algorithm theory. The Rubik’s Cube is a prime example of a permutation puzzle, where an object’s parts must be rearranged to reach a solution.

READ MORE: Unlocking the Mystery: Who Invented Geometry?

Mathematicians have even determined there are 43 quintillion possible configurations. The Rubik’s Cube remains an essential tool for teaching these concepts, aiding in developing spatial and deductive reasoning skills.

The Rubik’s Cube in Popular Culture

The Rubik’s Cube is steeped in popular culture—from iconic 80s references to appearances in contemporary media. Movies, TV series, music, and artworks often use it as a symbol of intellectual challenge. It has influenced design trends, inspiring cube-shaped items in everything from fashion to architecture, highlighting its ubiquitous presence.


The Rubik’s Cube has given rise to ‘Speedcubing,’ an intense competition where players solve the cube under time pressure. The World Cube Association (WCA) governs these contests, establishing rules and verifying world records. Speedcubing demands rapid hand-eye coordination, robust memory skills, and the ability to identify and execute algorithms under duress.

Rubik’s Cube Variations

While the 3x3x3 cube is the most famous, numerous variations exist, ranging from different sizes to alternative shapes. For instance, the smaller 2x2x2 Pocket Cube, larger 4x4x4 Rubik’s Revenge, and even 5x5x5 Professor’s Cube. There are also tetrahedral, dodecahedral, and cylindrical versions, making the Rubik’s universe incredibly diverse.

Art and the Rubik’s Cube

The Rubik’s Cube has inspired artists to create ‘Rubik’s Cubism,’ a style of artwork that uses scrambled or solved cubes to form pixelated images when viewed from a distance. Cube formations can act as pixels to construct anything from portraits to complex scenes, showcasing the Rubik’s Cube’s versatility beyond puzzle-solving.

The Impact of Rubik’s Cube on Society

While answering who invented the Rubik’s Cube and who solved it fastest is intriguing, it’s also fascinating to delve into the broader cultural impact of this cubic puzzle. The Rubik’s Cube is an enduring symbol of intellectual challenge and a testament to human curiosity and problem-solving capacity. It has become a challenging puzzle to solve and a cultural and educational artifact pervading various fields such as mathematics, sciences, arts, and more.

Rubik’s Cube and Education

Positioned at the crossroads of learning, play, and intellectual development, the Rubik’s Cube has found its place in various educational environments.

Ernő Rubik emphasized the cube’s potential as an elegant teaching tool. He found the cube served very nicely as proof of teaching concepts that ranged from the essential activity of problem-solving to more advanced ideas like group theory.

From young students in a New York classroom to elder enthusiasts trying to remember the solutions they once practiced, the Rubik’s Cube remains captivating. As an educational tool used to teach math and logic concepts, the cube fosters a hands-on approach to learning and instills a sense of wonderment in the physical models we can manipulate with our hands.

Moreover, handling the Rubik’s Cube enhances spatial aptitude, giving students a tangible demonstration of geometric transformations.

The Business of the Rubik’s Cube

The Rubik’s Cube has been an impressive commercial success. Over 350 million units sold worldwide affirm its status as one of the best-selling toys ever. Yet, the cube’s reach extends beyond its classic form. The brand has expanded into merchandise like t-shirts, mugs, tie-in video games, and even augmented reality experiences. Popularity spanning generations and effective business strategies have catapulted Rubik’s brand into an enduring and profitable phenomenon on the global toy market stage.

Rubik’s Cube and Philanthropy

The aura of the Rubik’s Cube isn’t limited to classrooms, competitions, or pop culture – it also glows under the banner of philanthropy. Programs like “You CAN Do The Rubik’s Cube” intend to motivate children, particularly those from less privileged backgrounds, providing them with cubes and solving guides. These initiatives aim to teach problem-solving skills, cultivate confidence, encourage teamwork, and promote STEM education, underlining the philanthropic potential in this cube of colored squares.

Celebrities and the Rubik’s Cube

The Rubik’s Cube has fans from many walks of life, including celebrities. During an interview, Popstar Justin Bieber shocked a TV host by solving the cube in less than two minutes. Actor Will Smith showcased his speedcubing skills in “The Pursuit of Happyness,” former U.S. President Obama reported having the cube among items in his Oval Office.

Ernő Rubik’s Reflections

“Rubik’s recalls” has become a quintessential phrase for those looking back at the history and impact of the cube. Rubik’s memories of developing the cube and his trouble solving the inaugural scrambled configuration offer invaluable insight into how an invention can become a worldwide phenomenon.

The Timeless Puzzle

Ernő Rubik, who invented the cube, probably didn’t anticipate that his creation would become a popular puzzle toy and influence artists and designers well into the new millennium. The cube’s elegant simplicity, combined with its color-matching challenge, inspires creativity in users beyond merely solving the puzzle—it engages the brain in a way that transcends the Rubik’s wrist-twisting motion.







How to Cite this Article

There are three different ways you can cite this article.

1. To cite this article in an academic-style article or paper, use:

Syed Rafid Kabir, "Who Invented the Rubik’s Cube? The Real Story of the Brain Box", History Cooperative, December 25, 2023, https://historycooperative.org/who-invented-the-rubiks-cube/. Accessed July 19, 2024

2. To link to this article in the text of an online publication, please use this URL:


3. If your web page requires an HTML link, please insert this code:

<a href="https://historycooperative.org/who-invented-the-rubiks-cube/">Who Invented the Rubik’s Cube? The Real Story of the Brain Box</a>

Leave a Comment