Diverse Threads in the History of the United States: The Life of Booker T. Washington

Booker T Washington

“What’s resulted in the decades since is supposed to be an opportunity for White people and their institutions to redress their perpetual erasure of the roles of Black folks in building this country on our backs… What we’ve been given, however, is a rote acknowledgment of the same five people — Rosa Parks, Martin Luther …

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Ruby Bridges: The Open Door Policy of Forced Desegregation

Ruby Bridges: The Open Door Policy of Forced Desegregation 2

In the 1960s, the political climate in America was beginning to change. The country had in previous history been steeped in racism against African Americans and the majority of the nation was considered to be a segregated country. There were separate schools for races, separate water fountains there were restaurants that said “whites only” and …

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By Any Means Necessary: Malcolm X’s Controversial Struggle for Black Freedom

By Any Means Necessary: Malcolm X’s Controversial Struggle for Black Freedom 3

In the 1960s, the United States was shaken by racial tensions and fledgling social movements. Discouraged by the shortcomings of the civil rights movement and its apparent inability to secure freedom and self-determination for African American people, one remarkable black man utters the motto that would electrify black communities for decades: …to fight whoever gets …

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The Bixby Letter: A New Analysis Casts Doubt

The Bixby Letter: A New Analysis Casts Doubt 4

One of the most extravagantly admired of all Lincoln documents is the letter to the Widow Bixby, written on November 21, 1864. James G. Randall and Richard N. Current declared that it “stands with the Gettysburg address as a masterpiece in the English language.”[1] Another Lincoln biographer, David A. Anderson, claimed that “Lincoln’s three greatest …

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Chicano Movement: Young Mexican Americans Seeking Change

Chicano Movement

“THEY SAY THERE IS NO DISCRIMINATION, but we have only to look around us to know the truth. We look at the schools … the houses we live in … the few opportunities … the dirt in the streets … and we know.” [2] José Angel Gutiérrez spoke these words on 1 April 1963, to …

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