Ruby Bridges: The Open Door Policy of Forced Desegregation

The Civil Rights Movement 2

In the 1960s, the political climate in America was beginning to change. The country previously had been steeped in racism against African Americans and the majority of the nation was considered to be a segregated country. There were separate schools for races, separate water fountains there were restaurants that said “whites only” and this was …

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By any means necessary: Malcolm X’s controversial struggle for black freedom

The Civil Rights Movement 3

In 1960s, the United States was shaken by racial tensions and fledgeling social movements. Discouraged by the shortcomings of the civil rights movement and its apparent inability to secure freedom and self-determination for African American people, one remarkable black man utters the motto that would electrify black communities for decades – (fight for freedom and …

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Fire For Learning: Booker T. Washington’s Drive for Education

The Civil Rights Movement 4

A young black man one day overhears a conversation. In between the hard clink clink sound of pickaxe striking the earth and in between the groans and grunts of the hard working men deep in a coal mine, he heard the words that gave him hope for life far beyond that of what the small …

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The Bixby Letter: A New Analysis Casts Doubt

The Civil Rights Movement 5

One of the most extravagantly admired of all Lincoln documents is the letter to the Widow Bixby, written on November 21, 1864. James G. Randall and Richard N. Current declared that it “stands with the Gettysburg address as a masterpiece in the English language.”[1] Another Lincoln biographer, David A. Anderson, claimed that “Lincoln’s three greatest …

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Chicano Movement: Young Mexican Americans Seeking Change

Chicano Movement

“THEY SAY THERE IS NO DISCRIMINATION, but we have only to look around us to know the truth. We look at the schools … the houses we live in … the few opportunities … the dirt in the streets … and we know.” [2] José Angel Gutiérrez spoke these words on 1 April 1963, to …

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