Who Invented Peanut Butter?

Who really invented peanut butter? The answer isn’t as straightforward as you might think. This delectable spread, which graces kitchen shelves around the world, has a complex history marked by innovation, popularization, and even controversy.

From early recipes by the Aztecs to mass production in modern factories, peanut butter’s journey to your jar is a story of culinary evolution, nutritious benefits, and cultural impact. Who could’ve guessed so much history is packed into this pantry staple?

Who Invented Peanut Butter: Ambiguity Surrounding the Invention

There isn’t a single individual responsible for the invention of peanut butter. Figures like Marcellus Gilmore Edson, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, and even George Washington Carver are oftentimes credited with the development of today’s peanut butter. While their contributions made an undeniable impact on the nutty spread, none of them can solely claim “inventor” rights. The history of peanut butter, or a facsimile of it, dates back to some ancient civilizations.

READ MORE: Who Invented Peanuts? Uncovering the History of This Beloved Nut 

When it comes to culinary inventions that have shaped the modern palate, few elicit as much passion and debate as peanut butter. It’s that quintessential spread, transcending cultures and generations, uniting us in our collective love for this creamy, or sometimes chunky, delight. But behind the legions of peanut butter aficionados lies a history mired in misconceptions and half-truths. Who actually gets the credit for inventing peanut butter? The answer is more intricate than you might imagine.

Early Instances of Peanut-Based Foods in Ancient Cultures

While peanut butter may seem as American as apple pie, early forms of ground peanuts were known to ancient civilizations. In South America, the Aztecs and Incas were grinding peanuts into a paste long before the modern concept of peanut butter was born. Archaeological evidence from the Peruvian Moche civilization suggests that peanuts were common offerings to the dead, especially those of a high social status. It’s important to recognize that these historical practices existed, but they were not the peanut butter we know and indulge in today.

The Role of Marcellus Gilmore Edson

The landscape of peanut butter history changed dramatically in 1884 when Marcellus Gilmore Edson, a Canadian pharmacist, was granted the first patent for the process of making peanut paste. His invention was closer to what we’d identify as peanut butter, a result of milling roasted peanuts between two heated plates. Edson initially intended the product as a nutritious option for people who couldn’t chew hard food such as the elderly.

Dr. John Harvey Kellogg’s Contribution to the Popularization

Fast-forward a few years to the late 19th century, and enter Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, an American physician and nutritionist, most famous for Kellogg’s cereals. His variant of peanut butter was somewhat distinct, but what set Kellogg apart was his relentless promotion. At a time when the American diet was undergoing a transformation, Kellogg’s sanitarium in Michigan became a hotspot for this new, protein-rich food. It was also the place where Kellogg’s Corn Flakes got its unusual start.

George Washington Carver and History’s Misconception

The name most incorrectly associated with the invention of peanut butter is George Washington Carver. The man was a genius, don’t get us wrong, but he didn’t invent peanut butter. Despite this, his work in agricultural science and promotion of peanuts as a crop in the Southern United States profoundly impacted its popularity. Carver’s long list of peanut derivatives somehow led to the misunderstanding that he was the genius behind this beloved spread.

The Myth Around George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver is commonly but erroneously credited with inventing peanut butter. While Carver was indeed instrumental in popularizing the use of peanuts in the United States, his work did not include the creation of peanut butter. It was in 1916 that Carver published his bulletin, “How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption,” and later found over 300 uses for peanuts. The misattribution persists, highlighting how historical inaccuracies can become embedded in popular culture.

Early Evidence of Peanut-Based Foods and Spreads

Peanut-based foods and pastes have a long history. Ancient South American civilizations were among the first to recognize the potential of ground peanuts. Yet, these were not akin to the commercial jars we devour en masse today. Peanut butter’s story takes a significant turn in the late 19th century when we begin to see a semblance of this modern morsel emerge.

Marcellus Gilmore Edson’s Patent in 1884

The date that stands as a milestone in the realm of peanut butter is 1884. Marcellus Gilmore Edson’s patent for a peanut paste process marked the official beginning of peanut butter’s journey into the modern era. Unlike other foods that slowly evolved over centuries, peanut butter’s invention is relatively well-documented, with this patent serving as a tangible starting point.

Kellogg’s Work in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

Dr. John Harvey Kellogg further refined and popularized this nutty invention towards the end of the 19th century. His prominence as a health figure offered an endorsement that could not be ignored, bolstering peanut butter’s standing as a nutritious option. Kellogg’s influence carried into the early 20th century, a pivotal period that saw the spread transition from health sanitariums to the American dining table.

Modern Companies and Their Role in Popularizing Peanut Butter

In the early 20th century, companies like Swift & Company, under the brand name Peter Pan, and The Skippy Corporation brought peanut butter into the limelight of American households. Their commercial efforts paved the way for peanut butter to become a staple food item, far removed from its therapeutic origins at Kellogg’s sanitarium or its ancient roots with the Aztecs and Incas.

So, who invented peanut butter? It’s a legacy shaped by many hands, a communal culinary effort that defies simplistic attribution. In the end, it’s not just a matter of who but also when, how, and why. The full scope of its history provides a profile that’s as rich and textured as the peanut butter itself.

Peanut butter, as we know it, entered the historical timeline with notable clarity in the late 19th century, although the initial stages of its development trace back further. Understanding this chronology helps us appreciate how it evolved from an experimental food to a household staple.

Timeline of Significant Developments Leading to Mass Production

As we progress through the early 1900s, peanut butter undergoes a series of metamorphoses that prime it for mass consumption. By the 1920s, advancements in grinding technology allowed for smoother textures and longer shelf lives. It wasn’t long before peanut butter began occupying supermarket shelves, particularly during World War II when it was included in U.S. Military rations. The post-war era saw a surge in its popularity, with brands like Jif emerging in the 1950s, ensuring peanut butter’s indelible place in American food culture.

There we have it—our modern obsession with peanut butter has roots that stretch across centuries and continents, yet its development into the product we now relish is relatively recent. This timeline not only tells us when peanut butter was formalized but also places it within broader currents of food science, commerce, and culture.

The creation of peanut butter involved a series of innovative steps, from rudimentary grinding to modern manufacturing. While its fundamental component—peanuts—remains consistent, the methods to transform it into the spread we love have evolved dramatically over time.

Pre-Columbian Early Methods: Mortar and Pestle in Ancient Civilizations

Centuries ago, the Aztecs and Incas employed a simple but effective approach to enjoy the rich taste of peanuts. Using a mortar and pestle, they manually ground the nuts into a paste, a laborious process that yielded a product quite different from the creamy or crunchy options we have today. These were more rudimentary peanut pastes than what we would identify as peanut butter, but were no less delicious.

1884 – Edson’s Method: Milling Roasted Peanuts Between Two Heated Plates

Marcellus Gilmore Edson’s patented technique brought a greater degree of finesse to the process. His approach involved milling roasted peanuts between two hot plates. The outcome was a finely ground paste, smoother than any prior form, that could be packaged and consumed with ease. His invention was initially aimed at providing a digestible protein source for people who had difficulty chewing solid foods.

1895-1904 – Kellogg’s Process: Creating a More Shelf-Stable Product

John Harvey Kellogg, a figure synonymous with breakfast cereals, played a vital role in the methodological evolution of peanut butter. His focus was on creating a shelf-stable product that retained its taste and nutritional value. Kellogg utilized a steam roaster for the peanuts and then ground them, setting the stage for a version of peanut butter that could be mass-produced and stored for extended periods.

READ MORE: Who Invented Cereal? History of the Popular Breakfast

Evolution of Production Methods Leading to Modern Manufacturing

As the 20th century progressed, technological advancements streamlined the manufacturing process, making peanut butter an affordable luxury. Innovations in hydraulic pressing and grinding mechanisms created a smoother, more uniform texture. Added stabilizers and sweeteners extended shelf life and palatability, paving the way for the jars that populate our supermarket shelves today.

The invention of peanut butter wasn’t an isolated event but rather an ongoing narrative of human ingenuity and culinary evolution. Each methodological shift represents a broader tale of societal needs, technological innovation, and dietary trends. As you spread that creamy or crunchy delight on your bread, you’re not just enjoying a modern staple; you’re partaking in a rich lineage of food history that spans both time and technique.

The Nutritional Benefits of Peanut Butter

Peanut butter isn’t just a delectable spread; it packs a nutritional punch that has contributed to its rise as a favored food item across demographics.

Basic Nutritional Components: Protein, Healthy Fats, Vitamins

One of the most compelling aspects of peanut butter is its rich nutritional profile. High in protein and packed with healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, peanut butter serves as a versatile and satisfying source of essential nutrients. It’s also a good source of vitamins and minerals, notably Vitamin E, magnesium, and potassium, which play vital roles in everything from muscle function to antioxidant defense.

Comparison with Other Spreads and Nut Butters

When weighed against other spreads like jelly or butter, peanut butter stands out for its protein content and healthier fat profile. Likewise, compared to other kinds of butter such as almond or cashew, peanut butter generally offers more protein per serving. This makes peanut butter an excellent choice for those looking for nutrient-dense options to complement their diet.

Those who are allergic to peanuts don’t have to miss out on a nutritious spread. Peanuts are considered a legume, so nut butter spreads like cashews and almonds are generally safe alternatives. Though not as protein-packed as peanut butter, nut butters offer their own degrees of vitamins and minerals. Just double-check that the product was made in a peanut-free facility to avoid any possible exposure, or make your own from scratch.

Oh, and always consult with a healthcare provider before making any major dietary changes!

The Cultural Impact of Peanut Butter

Peanut butter reaches far beyond its culinary or nutritional significance; it has seeped into the fabric of culture, affecting how we eat, socialize, and even how we think about food. There’s a lot more to the discussion than “Crunchy or creamy?”

Peanut Butter in American Households

In the United States, peanut butter enjoys a near-iconic status. It’s hard to find a pantry without a jar, and its presence in school lunches, snacks, and even gourmet recipes speaks to its ubiquity. Studies have solidified peanut butter’s role in American households, with CNBC reporting that “Americans eat an average of 4.25 pounds of peanut butter per capita.” Moreover, an estimated 94% of American households reportedly have peanut butter stocked, further signifying its integral role in everyday life.

Peanut Butter as a Symbol of Convenience and Affordability

One of the lasting cultural impacts of peanut butter is its representation of convenience. In a fast-paced world, the ability to whip up a quick peanut butter and jelly sandwich is more than just a time-saver; it’s a lifestyle enabler. Additionally, peanut butter offers a cost-effective source of nutrition, making it a staple in budget-conscious households. A little peanut butter can go a long way!

Since it skyrocketed in popularity in the 20th century, peanut butter can be found in most American pantries. It was one of the foods that carried folks through the Great Depression, which saw an influx of culinary creativity as people made do with what little they had. From it, there came peanut butter stuffed onions, peanut butter bread, and America’s favorite: PB&Js! By the time WWII rolled around, PB&J sandwiches became a staple in soldier’s rations.

Worldwide Adoption and Variations of Peanut Butter

While it holds a special place in American culture, peanut butter has also made inroads internationally. Different cultures have embraced it, sometimes with unique variations. For example, in the Netherlands, ‘pindakaas’ or ‘peanut cheese‘ is a popular spread, while in some parts of Africa, groundnut soup incorporates the taste of peanuts in a different culinary context.

Peanut butter has transcended its initial purpose and formulation to become a cultural cornerstone, embodying values such as convenience, affordability, and adaptability. Whether it’s the comfort of a PB&J in an American lunchbox or its adaptation to international cuisines, the cultural significance of peanut butter is a testament to its universal appeal and versatility. The next time you indulge in this nutty favorite, ponder its cultural significance—it’s a mirror reflecting diverse lifestyles and preferences, and a bridge connecting various culinary traditions.

Controversies and Misconceptions

As universally beloved as peanut butter is, it’s not without its share of controversies and misconceptions that color public perception. Over the years, peanut butter has been called into question regarding its sustainability and its potential health drawbacks.

Ethical Considerations: Sustainability and Sourcing of Peanuts

Increasingly, the ethical implications of food choices are coming to the forefront, and peanut butter is not exempt. Questions about the sustainability of peanut farming, fair labor practices, and the environmental impact of mass-producing a mono-crop like peanuts have begun to permeate consumer consciousness. Some brands now offer ‘ethically sourced’ or ‘sustainable’ peanut butter, although what these terms mean can vary.

The profile of peanut butter extends far past its culinary and nutritional value. It also encompasses the often-conflicting strands of cultural myth, public health considerations, and ethical dilemmas. Such controversies and misconceptions remind us that no food item, no matter how beloved, is free from the broader questions that challenge our society.

Health Considerations: Calories, Sugar Content in Commercial Products

While peanut butter’s nutritional benefits are manifold, it’s essential to consider some of the less-ideal aspects. Peanut butter is calorie-dense, so moderation is key for those watching their caloric intake. Additionally, commercial peanut butter often contains added sugars and preservatives that can negate some of its health benefits. Always scrutinize the ingredients list if you’re aiming for a more wholesome option.

Peanut butter’s nutritional benefits have been a cornerstone of its widespread acceptance and can be linked to its initial use as a health food in sanitariums. Over time, as the production methods became more sophisticated, so too did our understanding of its dietary advantages and potential drawbacks.

Allergenic Concerns Related to Peanuts and Peanut Butter

One of the darker sides of peanut butter’s ubiquity is its potential to cause severe allergic reactions. Peanut allergies are among the most common food allergies and can be life-threatening. This has led to peanut-free zones in many schools and sparked debates about individual responsibility versus public safety when it comes to food allergies.

The Tough-to-Swallow Truths about Peanut Butter

Peanut butter is more than just a beloved spread; it’s a fascinating amalgam of history, nutrition, culture, and controversy. Its invention reflects a blend of ingenuity across different eras, while its nutritional profile makes it a staple in many diets. Its cultural imprint is undeniable, both in America and around the globe. Yet, it also provokes essential debates about health and ethics. As you enjoy your next spoonful, consider the rich tapestry that makes up this humble yet complex food, a tapestry woven over centuries and across continents.

How to Cite this Article

There are three different ways you can cite this article.

1. To cite this article in an academic-style article or paper, use:

Cierra Tolentino, "Who Invented Peanut Butter?", History Cooperative, September 12, 2023, https://historycooperative.org/who-invented-peanut-butter/. Accessed July 13, 2024

2. To link to this article in the text of an online publication, please use this URL:


3. If your web page requires an HTML link, please insert this code:

<a href="https://historycooperative.org/who-invented-peanut-butter/">Who Invented Peanut Butter?</a>

Leave a Comment