Who Invented Soap? Hero of the Bathroom

Whoever thought of making a bar that would magically clean off dirt and nasty bodily fluids? 

The history of soap is one that dates back to the prioritization of hygiene over smelling like rotten cheese every day.

Who Invented Soap?

The invention of soap is not attributed to a singular individual but emerged from various ancient societies’ needs for cleanliness and ritual.

Detailed recipes for soap-making date back to Ancient Babylon, laying the foundation for a cleaning agent that would endure for millennia.

When Was Soap Invented?

The Ancient Babylonians are frequently credited with creating a primitive form of soap by boiling animal fats with wood ashes, leveraging the ensuing chemical reaction to produce a cleansing agent. While this crude soap might have been harsh by today’s standards, it was a stepping stone in the history of personal hygiene.

In contrast, the Ancient Egyptians refined soap making further, as documented in the Ebers Papyrus around 1550 BC. They integrated various organic oils with alkaline salts to create a more sophisticated substance for washing their bodies and clothes. Various fats, including goat and vegetable fats, made their soap-like substances milder and more versatile.

READ MORE: Ancient Egypt Timeline: Predynastic Period Until the Persian Conquest

What Did People Use Before Soap?

Throughout history, soap has served roles beyond that of mere cleanliness. In ancient cultures, soap was used for washing and held medicinal value. The early recipes for soap devised by ancient civilizations, particularly the Sumerians and Egyptians, mention using soap-like substances for treating skin diseases and wounds.

These ancient formulations often included herbs and oils with known medicinal properties.

The Cultural Shifts Fueled by Soap

In the Roman Empire, the proliferation of public baths solidified the collective ethos of washing, creating a social framework where bathing was both a communal and ritualistic activity.

This tradition of cleanliness was carried forward through the Middle Ages in Europe.

The Origin of Liquid Soap

The transition from solid to liquid soap reflects the innovation and adaptability that has characterized soap’s history. Although the precise invention of liquid soap is not well-documented, its emergence is believed to have come much later, with a more complex understanding of the soap-making process and the properties of fats and oils.

Traditional Soap Makers and Animal Fats

Traditional soap makers relied heavily on animal fats such as tallow, rendered from cattle or sheep, for centuries as the primary base for their soaps. The role of animal fat in soap production cannot be overstated; it was the standard until the discovery of vegetable oils offered alternatives. Exactly when soap makers first started using animal fat, it was lost to prehistory, but this ingredient’s impact lasted well into the modern era.

Aromatic Oils and the Pursuit of Cleaner Living

This practice became particularly prominent during the time of the Romans, who infused their soaps with aromatic substances, though true perfumed soap would reach its zenith under Muslim alchemists during the Middle Ages.

The Alteration of Fats

During the Middle Ages, soap-making saw a transitional moment by integrating vegetable oils such as olive oil. Soap production in the Middle East, and particularly the Levant region, became renowned for its high-quality soaps, introducing olive oil as a critical ingredient—another pivotal evolution in the history of soap.

How Did the Muslims Make Soap?

Within the House of Wisdom in Baghdad and beyond, Muslim scholars explored the properties of different oils and concocted a variety of soaps that were both cleansing and kind to the skin. Their approach to soap production was methodical, fostering advances in the soap industry and personal cleanliness.

The soaps crafted from this point on in the Middle East would see the use of the same ingredients like olive oil and lye—combinations that maintained a purer, more uniform product that was gentle on the skin.

Castile Soap

Castile soap, which originated in the Castile region of Spain, is one of the most noteworthy milestones in the history of soap in the medieval world. Made purely from olive oil, this mild, white soap became a luxury item and a staple of personal cleanliness throughout Europe.

What Is the Oldest Bar Soap?

The oldest bar soap, which is recognizable as something similar to what we use today emerged during the Islamic Golden Age; it is believed to have been developed in the 7th century by chemists in the Middle East. The process involved using vegetable and animal oils mixed with alkaline salts to produce a soap more similar to the bars we use today.

This soap-making process was described in detail by the Persian chemist Al-Razi (or Rhazes) in the 9th century, indicating a level of standardization and understanding of soap properties. These soaps could have been formed into bars, allowing more convenient use and storage.

Who Manufactured the First Soap?

The soap industry as we know it began to take shape in the 19th century. Pioneers like Andrew Pears and companies such as Lever Brothers in England, Johnson Soap Company in the U.S., and other soap makers across the continents, began commercializing soap and making it an integral part of everyday life for all social classes, not just a privileged few.

The industrial revolution mechanized manufacturing and played a pivotal role in transforming soap-making into a booming industry. In the 19th century, innovations such as the Leblanc process and later the Solvay process drastically improved soda ash production, a key ingredient in soap making. This surge in the availability of alkaline chemicals allowed soap production to scale up, meeting the rising demand of the burgeoning middle class.

Companies like Procter & Gamble in the United States and Lever Brothers in the United Kingdom capitalized on these advancements, investing in large-scale factories and launching brands that would become household names. The mass production of soap was a significant turn, shifting the paradigm from artisanal soap calls to an industry that shaped consumerism and hygiene practices globally.

Soap Making and Personal Cleanliness Through Modern History

With every century AD passed, soap-making techniques improved, paralleling society’s continually escalating standards for personal cleanliness. From the American colonies to the public baths of the Roman Empire, the demand for soap and the variety of soaps expanded, particularly during times of public health crises or outbreaks of skin diseases.

The Chemistry of Cleaning

Fats and oils—whether from animals or vegetables—mixed with an alkali form the foundation of soap, and the alchemical transformation during this chemical reaction has fascinated scientists and soap makers alike. Lye—derived from wood ashes—acts as the alkaline agent necessary for saponification, which melds fat and alkali into the substance we know as soap.

Whether for bathing or washing clothes, the alliance between fat, oil, and lye revolutionized cleanliness and paved the way for the discovery and proliferation of modern soap.

Rinsing Away the Dirt

The development of soap emerged out of necessity to combat grime and odors, but its role in advancing public health cannot be overstated. As knowledge about the transmission of diseases grew, especially after the grim experiences of several world wars, the importance of soap escalated from a comfort to a necessity in the fight against germs.

The Ultimate Cleanser

While the first soaps laid the groundwork, the modern era witnessed an expansion into synthetic detergents, developed during the early 20th century when animal and vegetable fats were scarce.

These new cleaners boasted superior cleaning power, especially in hard water, marking another pivotal moment in the rich history of soap.

The Legacy Continues

Today’s modern soap, from liquid hand soaps to luxurious bar soaps infused with essential oils, continues to evolve. Brands push the envelope with formulations designed for every skin type and environmental conscience, signaling a future where soap not only cleans but cares, potentially returning to handmade soap and natural ingredients.

Squeaky Clean!

So there you have it: the bar of soap, the unsung bathroom hero, has a backstory that could rival any epic tale.

Remember, no matter how fancy soaps get, their bubbly job description stays the same: Keep humans from being stinky.

References:

https://ift.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1541-4337.12006

https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=GxCPd5bXe-YC&oi=fnd&pg=PA127&dq=bar+soap&ots=Aw8qgu5ecl&sig=MsrKYY1XIHFKhXHEamnvk-SO_Ug#v=onepage&q=bar%20soap&f=false

https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/235

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/393303

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00033793900201191

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