Roman Legion Names

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NameOrigin of NameTime of Creation
I Adiutrix pia fidelisAssistant, i.e. raised to supplement the legionary strengthNero
I ItalicaRaised in ItalyNero
I MacrianaRaised by Clodius MacerNero
I Flavia MinerviaAfter MinervaDomitian
I ParthicaRaised for campaigns in the EastSeverus
II Adiutrix pia fidelisAssistant, i.e. raised to supplement the legionary strengthVespasian
II AugustaRaised by AugustusAugustan
II Italica piaRaised in ItalyMarcus Aurelius in AD 165
II ParthicaRaised for campaigns in the EastSeverus
II Traiana fortisStrong, raised by TrajanTrajan
III Augusta pia fidelisFormed by AugustusAugustan
III CyrenaicaProvince where it gained distinctionPre-Augustan
III GallicaFrom the veterans of Caesar’s Gallic legionsPre-Augustan
III Italica concorsUnited, raised in ItalyMarcus Aurelius in AD 165
III ParthicaRaised for campaigns in the EastSeverus
IV Flavia firmaSteadfast, raised by VespasianVespasian in AD 70
IV MacedonicaProvince where it gained distinctionAugustan
IV ScythiaRegion where it gained distinctionPre-Augustan
V AlaudaeThe Lark, raised by CaesarPre Augustan
V MacedonicaProvince where it gained distinctionPre-Augustan
VI Ferrata fidelis constans‘Iron-sides’, a nickname indicating their endurancePre-Augustan
VI VictrixVictorious, given after an outstanding victoryPre-Augustan
VII Macedonica Claudia pia fidelisFor its loyalty to Claudius during a mutiny in AD 42Pre-Augustan
VII GeminaOne legion made out of twoGalba
VIII AugustaReconstituted by AugustusPre-Augustan
IX HispanaProvince where it gained distinctionPre-Augustan
X FretensisFrom the naval war between Octavian and Sextus PompeiusPre-Augustan
X GeminaOne legion made out of twoPre-Augustan
XI Claudia pia fidelisFor its loyalty to Claudius during a mutiny in AD 42Pre-Augustan
XII Fulminata‘Lighting-hurler’, probably gained under CaesarPre-Augustan
XIII Gemina pia fidelisOne legion made out of twoAugustan
XIV Gemina Martia VictrixOne legion made out of twoAugustan
XV ApollinarisAfter the god ApolloAugustan
XV PrimigeniaAfter Fortuna PrimigeniaCaligula or Claudius
XVI Flavia firmaRaised by VespasianVespasian in AD 70
XVI GallicaProvince where it gained distinction, possibly under DrususAugustan
XX Valeria VictrixGained distinction under Valerius MessalinusAugustan
XXI Rapax‘Greedy’ – in the sense of sweeping everthing before itAugustan
XXII DeiotarianaRaised by DeiotarusAugustan
XXII Primigenia pia fidelisAfter Fortuna PrimigeniaCaligula or Claudius
XXX Ulpia victrixRaised by Trajan and called victorious presumably after distinguishing conduct in DaciaTrajan

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