King Tut’s Tomb: The World’s Magnificent Discovery and Its Mysteries

King Tut’s tomb is a captivating archaeological discovery that has fascinated the world for decades. The tomb of Tutankhamun, better known as King Tut, holds great historical significance, primarily due to its extraordinary nature. The uniqueness of King Tut’s tomb stands out and warrants detailed insights into its contents, discovery, and the enigmatic pharaoh himself.

What is King Tut’s Tomb?

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Howard Carter in King Tutankhamun’s tomb.

King Tut’s tomb refers to the burial site of Pharaoh Tutankhamun who ruled during the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom period (approximately 1332-1323 BCE). He ascended to the throne at a young age, around nine or ten years old, and his reign was relatively short-lived. Despite his brief rule, King Tut’s historical importance stems from the discovery of his intact tomb, which was remarkable not only for its treasures but also for its exceptional state of preservation[1].

Unlike many other royal tombs that were looted and destroyed over the centuries, King Tut’s tomb remained hidden and largely untouched for over 3,000 years. This provided a unique opportunity for archaeologists to study an intact pharaonic tomb, offering unprecedented insights into ancient Egyptian burial practices and beliefs.

The Uniqueness of King Tut’s Tomb

King Tut’s tomb stands out among other royal tombs in ancient Egypt for several reasons, making it a subject of global intrigue and fascination[1]. Not only was it the burial site of a pharaoh, but it also captured worldwide attention due to its extraordinary state of preservation and the treasures it housed. 

Unprecedented Preservation 

The exceptional preservation of King Tut’s tomb is a remarkable aspect that distinguishes it from many other ancient Egyptian tombs[3]. Unlike tombs that had been looted or damaged over time, King Tut’s burial chamber was discovered sealed and untouched. This pristine state allowed archaeologists to experience a glimpse of ancient Egypt in its original grandeur and gain unique insights into its historical customs and practices.

Intact Treasures and Artifacts 

Inside King Tut’s tomb, archaeologists unearthed an astonishing array of treasures and artifacts that offered a wealth of information about ancient Egyptian life and culture. The tomb contained a vast assortment of items[1], ranging from intricately crafted jewelry and exquisite golden artifacts to finely crafted furniture, ornate chariots, and even everyday objects. The perfect condition in which these artifacts were found is a testament to the exceptional craftsmanship of the ancient Egyptians and the meticulous burial practices employed during that era.

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Perfectly preserved objects in King Tutankhamun’s tomb

The Tomb Gives Insights into Other Lesser-Known Pharaohs 

Although King Tutankhamun himself may not have been widely recognized during his reign, the discovery of his tomb brought attention to lesser-known pharaohs of ancient Egypt. The treasures found within the tomb provided valuable clues and insights into the reign of a pharaoh who ascended the throne at a young age[4]. Through the artifacts, researchers pieced together the political and cultural landscape of the New Kingdom period, shedding light on the lives and legacies of pharaohs who might have otherwise been overlooked by history.

Cultural and Historical Significance 

Beyond its archaeological value, King Tut’s tomb holds immense cultural and historical significance. The discovery of the tomb and the subsequent exhibition of its treasures sparked a global fascination with ancient Egypt and its rich cultural heritage. The tomb became a symbol of the grandeur and mystique associated with ancient Egypt[2], capturing the imagination of people worldwide. It played a pivotal role in bringing one of the ancient civilizations to the forefront of popular culture, inspiring countless works of literature, movies, documentaries, and exhibitions. The contents of King Tut’s tomb continue to mesmerize audiences, providing a tangible connection to the past and deepening our understanding of the ancient world.

Where is King Tut’s tomb? 

King Tut’s tomb is located in the Valley of the Kings. The valley’s strategic location, significance as a royal necropolis, and specific positioning within the valley highlight the importance of King Tut’s burial place. Today, the Valley of the Kings continues to be a popular destination for tourists seeking to explore the rich history and heritage of ancient Egypt[3].

The Valley of the Kings, also known as the “Valley of the Tombs of the Kings,” is situated on the west bank of the Nile River, opposite the modern city of Luxor (ancient Thebes) in Egypt. This valley served as the primary burial site for pharaohs, powerful nobles, and members of the royal family during the New Kingdom period of ancient Egypt, specifically from the 16th to the 11th century BCE[4].

The choice of the Valley of the Kings as a burial ground was influenced by its geographical features. Surrounded by limestone cliffs and located away from the densely populated areas, the valley offered a secluded and sacred environment, believed to be ideal for the eternal rest of the pharaohs. Additionally, the limestone cliffs provided natural protection against potential tomb robbers.

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King Tut’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings

Specific Location within the Valley 

The position of King Tut’s tomb in the valley, designated KV62, holds significance, as it is situated near the entrance, close to the central part of the valley. This location implies the importance of King Tutankhamun, despite his brief reign and relative historical obscurity[1]. Being closer to the entrance also made it more accessible for funeral processions and offerings during burial ceremonies[2].

The tomb itself consists of a series of corridors and chambers, including the antechamber, burial chamber, and treasury. These areas were carefully designed and decorated to ensure the pharaoh’s smooth transition into the afterlife and to provide them with everything they would need for eternity.

The burial chamber within the tomb held the mummified body of King Tut, enclosed within a series of coffins[2], including the remarkable gold innermost coffin. The hidden nature of the tomb, the inclusion of funerary goods, and the adherence to ancient Egyptian burial rituals showcase the significance and cultural traditions associated with the burial of a pharaoh.

The Hidden Nature of the Tomb 

The tomb of King Tut remained hidden and undiscovered for over 3,000 years until its excavation in 1922 by British archaeologist Howard Carter[4]. The concealment of the tomb played a significant role in its preservation, as it remained untouched by looters and tomb robbers throughout history.

The location of the tomb was further protected by the construction of several antechambers, corridors, and sealed doors. These intricate security measures ensured secrecy and safeguarded the treasures within, allowing them to be preserved until their eventual discovery.

The Burial Rituals and Funerary Goods 

The burial of King Tut was followed by the rituals and customs of ancient Egypt. Alongside the pharaoh’s body, a wealth of funerary goods and treasures were placed within the tomb to accompany him in the Egyptian afterlife. These items included precious jewelry, golden statues, furniture, chariots, and various offerings of food, drink, and clothing.

The burial rituals also involved the inclusion of sacred texts, such as the Book of the Dead, to provide guidance and protection for the pharaoh’s soul in the afterlife[1]. The walls of the tomb were adorned with intricate paintings and hieroglyphic inscriptions, depicting scenes from Egyptian mythology and religious beliefs.

wall paintings in king tut's tomb
A detail from Tutankhamun’s tomb

What Was in King Tut’s Tomb? 

The contents of King Tut’s tomb offered a unique window into the opulence, craftsmanship, and religious beliefs of ancient Egypt. The treasures and artifacts provided valuable insights into the life, rituals, and material culture of a pharaoh who lived more than 3,000 years ago[4]. The discovery and subsequent exploration of King Tut’s tomb captivated the world, unveiling a wealth of information about the ancient Egyptian civilization and cementing King Tut’s legacy as one of the most celebrated pharaohs in history.

Treasures of Gold and Precious Materials

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An engraved sheet gold amulet collar, one of several found on the thorax of King Tutankhamun’s mummy

King Tut’s tomb contained a dazzling array of gold and precious materials. Among the treasures were ornate necklaces adorned with intricate amulets, depicting powerful Egyptian gods and goddesses such as the sky goddess Nut and the protective eye of Horus[1]. Delicate bracelets encrusted with precious gemstones, including lapis lazuli and carnelian, graced the tomb’s collection. Elaborate rings, crafted with meticulous attention to detail, showcased the mastery of ancient Egyptian goldsmiths. These treasures symbolized the pharaoh’s wealth, power, and divine connection.

Funerary Furnishings and Furniture

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The burial chamber of King Tut housed a remarkable collection of funerary furnishings and furniture. Elaborately carved chairs with lion-shaped legs and golden inlays demonstrated the craftsmanship and opulence of ancient Egyptian furniture[2]. Delicately designed chests and boxes adorned with exquisite patterns and scenes provided storage for valuable offerings and personal belongings. Luxurious beds, often featuring lion-shaped feet and decorative motifs, were prepared for the pharaoh’s eternal rest.

Statues and Figurines

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The tomb of King Tut contained a diverse assortment of statues and figurines. These representations included life-sized statues of gods and goddesses, such as Osiris and Hathor, as well as smaller figurines depicting sacred animals like the falcon-headed god Horus and the protective deity Bes[1]. These sculptures served as companions and guardians, believed to provide guidance and protection for the pharaoh in the afterlife. Crafted from various materials, including wood, bronze, and gold, these statues showcased the ancient Egyptians’ artistic skills and religious devotion.

Ceremonial and Ritual Objects 

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Ancient sword from Tutankhamun’s tomb

King Tut’s tomb unveiled a repository of ceremonial and ritual objects that played significant roles in ancient Egyptian burial practices. Elaborate vessels and libation tables were used for ceremonial offerings of food and drink to sustain the pharaoh’s spirit. Incense burners, adorned with intricate carvings and designs[1], were utilized to purify the air and create a sacred atmosphere during religious rituals. Ceremonial Egyptian weapons, such as ceremonial maces and daggers, symbolized the pharaoh’s authority and served as symbols of protection in the afterlife.

Everyday Objects and Personal Items

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A game box and pieces for playing the game of the Royal Game of Ur found within the intact KV62 tomb of King Tutankhamun

In addition to the opulent treasures, King Tut’s tomb contained a variety of everyday objects and personal items that provided insight into the pharaoh’s daily life. Cosmetic containers made of alabaster and adorned with intricate designs revealed the ancient Egyptians’ interest in beauty and personal grooming[1]. Game boards, including the popular game of Senet, reflected the pharaoh’s recreational activities. Chariots and hunting equipment highlighted King Tut’s pursuits as a warrior and hunter. Clothing items, such as linen garments and ceremonial robes, showcased the pharaoh’s regal attire.

The Canopic Shrine and Funerary Masks

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Tutankhamun’s funerary mask

The discovery of the canopic shrine and funerary masks within King Tut’s tomb provided a fascinating glimpse into the pharaoh’s burial rituals and beliefs. The canopic shrine housed four canopic jars, each safeguarding a different organ extracted during the mummification process. These organs, the lungs, liver, stomach, and intestines, were preserved and placed within the jars, which were often intricately decorated with protective deities and inscriptions. The funerary masks, particularly the iconic gold funerary[4] mask that covered King Tut’s mummified face, depicted the pharaoh’s idealized image and served to ensure his eternal identity in the afterlife.

A Detailed Description of the Innermost Burial Chamber 

Deep within the tomb, archaeologists uncovered the innermost burial chamber where the mummified remains of King Tut rested. The chamber contained a series of coffins nested within each other, each intricately decorated and crafted with exceptional skill. The outermost coffin was made of wood, covered in a layer of gold foil, and adorned with elaborate symbols and inscriptions representing various deities and protective spells. Inside this coffin, there were several more coffins, with each layer becoming smaller and more artfully designed[3]. The innermost coffin, made entirely of solid gold, was an awe-inspiring masterpiece. It featured sophisticatedly detailed engravings and precious gemstone inlays, depicting the pharaoh’s divine and regal attributes.

Within the innermost coffin, the mummy of King Tut was carefully wrapped in linen bandages, preserving his physical form for eternity[3]. The mummy was adorned with jewelry and amulets, providing protection and guidance in the afterlife. The level of preservation and the attention to detail in the burial process were extraordinary, reflecting the ancient Egyptians’ beliefs in the continuity of life after death and the necessity of preserving the physical body for the journey to the afterlife.

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Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus

What Does the Map of King Tut’s Tomb Signify?

The map of King Tut’s tomb provides a visual representation of the layout and structure of the tomb, offering valuable insights into its architecture and the placement of various chambers and passages. While it is important to note that the tomb’s map is not an exact blueprint but rather a schematic representation, it helps archaeologists and enthusiasts understand the spatial arrangement of the tomb’s different components.

The Entryway 

The entrance to King Tut’s tomb is accessed through a staircase consisting of sixteen steps that descend into the bedrock. At the westernmost end of the stairway, the rock of the valley floor forms a protective roof. In ancient times, the final six steps of the entrance were intentionally modified, along with the lintel and jambs of the passage, to accommodate the passage of larger funerary furniture. To restore these features, they were reconstructed using stone and plaster. More recently, a shelter has been constructed to provide additional protection and preservation for the entrance area[5].

The First Sealed Door 

In ancient times, the lintel and jambs of the doorway were deliberately carved out to create space for the transportation of sizable funerary furniture. As a replacement, a sturdy beam coated with lime wash was installed as the lintel. When Howard Carter first uncovered the tomb, he removed the initial obstruction, and later, when he took out the panels of the shrine, he had to widen the gate once again[5].

The map typically depicts the tomb as a series of interconnected chambers and corridors.

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The Passage

As per Reeves’ findings, the corridor/passage initially held remnants from the funeral banquet and items connected to the embalming process of the king. Following the first instance of looting, most of these items were relocated to KV54, while the corridor was deliberately obstructed with limestone chips and debris to hinder entry into the tomb chambers[5]. However, this attempt proved futile, evident from the tunnel created by a second group of robbers through the upper left section of the blockage. Eventually, this tunnel was filled with rubble before the tomb was sealed for the third time.

The Second Sealed Door (Gate B) 

In ancient times, the jambs in this door were also intentionally trimmed. When Howard Carter unearthed the tomb, he removed the original blockage from the gate[5].

The Antechamber 

The chamber, referred to as the Antechamber by Carter, has a long and rectangular shape, resembling the pillared sections found in other tomb burial chambers, although it lacks pillars. The walls of this chamber, along with all the other chambers except for the annex, are rough and devoid of decorations. Within this chamber, a remarkable collection of over six hundred objects was discovered.

Towards the left or southern end of the rear or western wall, there is a low doorway that leads to the annex. At the opposite end of the rear wall, towards the right or northern side, traces of an abandoned gate cutting can be seen. Evidence of chisel marks on the ceiling of the annex indicates that the antechamber originally extended approximately two meters further to the right or north. Additionally, a small recess is located near the floor in the center of the west wall of the antechamber[5].

The Fourth Sealed Door 

Despite its low height, the presence of black paint lines above the opening suggests that the gate was originally designed to be taller. When Howard Carter excavated the tomb, he removed the original obstruction from the gate[5].

The Annex 

The Annex, a rectangular side chamber referred to as such by Carter, serves a similar purpose to the storage side chambers typically found adjacent to the Golden Shrine in conventional tombs. Carter observed red control marks left by the masons on the walls of this chamber. The floor level of the Annex is 0.9 meters lower than that of the antechamber. Inside, a chaotic arrangement of furniture, baskets, wine jars, calcite vessels, model boats, and shabtis were discovered[5].

The Third Sealed Door 

Towards the right or northern side of the rear or western wall of the antechamber, there is a discarded gate cutting that was initially intended to lead to a second side chamber before the construction of the annex. Black lines running from the top and left side of the cutting provide indications of the intended dimensions of the gate[5].

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Unbroken Seal on the Third Shrine of Tutankhamun’s tomb.

The Golden Shrine 

The burial chamber, positioned to the right or northern side of the Annex along an east-west axis, features a floor level that is nearly a meter (around 3 feet) lower than its preceding chamber. Intriguingly, magical brick niches were meticulously carved into each of the four walls within the chamber. These niches were then covered with limestone flakes, which were subsequently plastered and adorned with paint.

Inside the burial chamber, an impressive assortment of three hundred objects was found, alongside four shrines. Within these shrines, archaeologists discovered the sarcophagus, three coffins, the burial mask, and the mummy of the king. Notably, the decoration within the burial chamber is exclusive to this space. The scenes depicted on the walls featured a vibrant background in golden yellow, and the figures were portrayed in a non-traditional artistic style[5].

In terms of layout, the human figures on every wall except the front or southern wall were arranged using the twenty-square grid, a characteristic of the Amarna Period. However, the south wall aligns more closely with the traditional artistic pattern of the eighteen-square grid.

The Gate leading to the Treasure Chamber 

To seal off the expansive opening leading into the Golden Shrine, a partition wall made of rubble and coated with plaster was constructed at the right or northern end of the Annex. Positioned at the center of this wall was a gate, supported by wooden beams serving as the lintel. Once the burial rites were completed, the gate was obstructed with rubble and covered in plaster imprinted with the seal of the necropolis[5].

Initially, the excavators gained access to the burial chamber by entering through a resealed hole created by tomb robbers in the lower right section of the gate. However, to remove the larger burial equipment, it became necessary for Carter to dismantle the partition wall and remove the blocking. As a result, the Theban Mapping Project faced difficulties in obtaining precise measurements of this gate.

A Gate in the Golden Shrine 

The low doorway found in the gate between the burial chamber/Golden Shrine and the treasure chamber was never sealed off or obstructed. As one moves from the burial chamber to the treasure chamber, there is a slight step down[5].

The Treasure Chamber 

Located to the east of the burial chamber, the treasure chamber, which Carter referred to as the Treasury, is positioned in a north-south orientation. Serving as a storeroom for Tutankhamun’s canopic shrine, this chamber housed an extensive collection of over five hundred objects. It shares similarities with the storerooms found in other burial chambers within the Valley[5].

Interestingly, the treasury is the only chamber in KV62 that does not have its doorway sealed with plaster and rubble. Among the various objects stored in this chamber, alongside the canopic chest within its shrine, were notable items such as a large figure of an Anubis jackal, shrines containing divine figures, a model granary, model boats, two fetuses enclosed in coffins, chests, and a chariot.

anubis-shrine
A portable Anubis shrine made of wood and gold, from King Tutankhamun’s tomb

When Was King Tut’s tomb found? 

The finding of King Tut’s tomb in 1922 remains one of the most significant archaeological discoveries in history. It opened a window into the past, allowing us to glimpse the grandeur and opulence of ancient Egypt[1]. The meticulous excavation and documentation of the tomb’s contents continue to shape our understanding of ancient Egyptian civilization, while the fascination with Tutankhamun and his legacy endures to this day.

The Search for Tutankhamun’s Tomb 

In the early 20th century, Howard Carter dedicated his life to searching for the tomb of the little-known pharaoh Tutankhamun[4]. Carter’s passion for ancient Egypt and his belief that a royal tomb still lay undiscovered in the Valley of the Kings fueled his determination. He dedicatedly studied previous excavations and historical records, analyzing clues and examining the topography of the valley in search of potential burial sites.

The Breakthrough Discovery 

After years of persistent effort, Carter’s moment of triumph arrived on November 4, 1922. As his team cleared debris and rubble in the Valley of the Kings, they unearthed a hidden step carved into the bedrock[1]. It led to a sealed doorway that held the promise of an untouched tomb. With cautious anticipation, Carter and his team realized they were on the brink of an extraordinary discovery.

Unveiling the Burial Chamber 

On November 26, 1922, Carter and his team made their way through the sealed doorway and entered the burial chamber. Their eyes met an awe-inspiring sight—the intact resting place of the boy king, Tutankhamun[4]. The chamber was filled with a dazzling array of treasures, providing a glimpse into the opulence and wealth of the New Kingdom period.

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Archeologist Howard Carter and his assistant Arthur Callender at the entrance to Tutankhamun’s tomb

Cataloging and Documentation 

With meticulous care, Carter and his team embarked on the arduous task of cataloging and documenting the immense collection of artifacts within the tomb. Each item was carefully examined, photographed, and recorded in detail. The team worked tirelessly to create an extensive inventory, ensuring that no artifact went unnoticed or unaccounted for. The process required years of undeterred work, preserving a comprehensive record of the tomb’s contents[4].

The World’s Fascination 

News of the discovery spread like wildfire, captivating people around the globe. The revelation of an untouched royal tomb filled with treasures sparked an unprecedented interest in ancient Egypt. Newspapers reported every development, and the public eagerly awaited updates on the excavation[2]. Exhibitions showcasing select artifacts from the tomb drew massive crowds, with people queuing for hours to catch a glimpse of the ancient wonders.

Legacy and Ongoing Research 

The discovery of King Tut’s tomb had a profound and lasting impact on the field of Egyptology[2]. The artifacts and treasures unearthed provided invaluable insights into ancient Egyptian art, religion, and daily life. Scholars and researchers continue to study and analyze the findings, deepening our understanding of the New Kingdom period and the reign of Tutankhamun. Ongoing research sheds new light on the significance of the tomb’s contents.

The Curse of the Pharaoh 

One intriguing aspect associated with the discovery of King Tut’s tomb is the alleged “Curse of the Pharaoh.” Media reports sensationalized the notion that those who entered the tomb would face a curse and suffer dire consequences. While the curse was largely a fabrication, it added an air of mystery and heightened public fascination[4] with the tomb. Some deaths of individuals connected to the excavation fueled the superstition, although these can be attributed to natural causes or mere coincidence.

Tourists outside Tutankhamun's tomb
Tourists outside Tutankhamun’s tomb

Looking Forward 

King Tut’s tomb and its construction have provided significant insights and knowledge in present times. The tomb offers valuable lessons about ancient Egyptian artistic and architectural techniques employed during the New Kingdom period. Its intricate wall paintings, elaborate burial chambers, and detailed funerary objects reveal the skill and craftsmanship of the ancient Egyptian artisans. The construction of the tomb showcases the mastery of the artisans and provides a glimpse into the artistic standards of the time.

Furthermore, King Tut’s tomb sheds light on the burial practices and rituals of ancient Egyptian pharaohs. The complex arrangement of chambers and the inclusion of burial masks, coffins, and canopic chests demonstrate the elaborate ceremonies and beliefs surrounding death and the afterlife. The tomb’s presence of funerary texts and the careful arrangement of the burial chambers offer valuable insights into the religious and spiritual beliefs of ancient Egyptians.

Another important aspect that we learn from King Tut’s tomb is the significance of preservation and restoration efforts. The exceptional state of preservation of the tomb and its treasures has allowed researchers to study and appreciate the original splendor of ancient Egyptian art and artifacts. It serves as a reminder of the importance of ongoing conservation efforts to safeguard our cultural heritage for future generations.

From a historical and cultural perspective, the discovery of King Tut’s tomb had a profound impact. It sparked a global fascination with ancient Egypt and brought the civilization to the forefront of public interest. The tomb’s contents continue to provide valuable insights into the political, social, and cultural aspects of ancient Egyptian society. The treasures found in the tomb have inspired countless exhibitions, books, and documentaries, furthering our understanding of this rich and enigmatic civilization.

The excavation and study of King Tut’s tomb also contributed to the development of archaeological methods and techniques. Howard Carter’s meticulous documentation, careful removal of artifacts, and scientific analysis set a standard for future archaeological investigations. The methods employed in the study of King Tut’s tomb have since been refined and expanded, leading to advancements in the field of archaeology.

Lastly, King Tut’s tomb has played a crucial role in public awareness and education. The discovery of the tomb and the subsequent exhibitions and educational initiatives have allowed people worldwide to engage with ancient history and deepen their knowledge of ancient Egypt. The tomb’s treasures have captivated audiences and served as a gateway to learning about the achievements, culture, and legacy of the ancient Egyptians.

References

  1. Reeves, Nicholas. The Complete Tutankhamun: The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. Thames & Hudson, 2008.
  2. Carter, Howard, and A. C. Mace. The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Dover Publications, 1977.
  3. Desroches-Noblecourt, Christiane. Tutankhamun: Life and Death of a Pharaoh. Penguin Books, 2007.
  4. Smith, G. Elliot. Tutankhamen and the Discovery of His Tomb by the Late Earl of Carnarvon and Mr. Howard Carter. BiblioBazaar, 2009.
  5. Theban Mapping Project. “KV 62: Tutankhamen.” Theban Mapping Project, https://thebanmappingproject.com/tombs/kv-62-tutankhamen (accessed May 11, 2023).

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