The History of Hardwicke’s Marriage Act of 1753

It’s a no-brainer how lucrative the wedding business is—in the United States alone over $72 billion is attributed to the sound of marriage bells each year, and if you want to break it down, that’s $20,000 average event planning budget, 6,200 weddings per day, and over $8 billion spent on wedding gifts per year. But …

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Mao and Fanon: Competing Theories of Violence in the Era of Decolonization

The Wretched of the Earth by Frantz Fanon offers a powerful critique of colonial rule, while at the same time providing a call for violent and revolutionary struggle against European imperialism. Written in 1961 and in the context of the Algerian War of Independence, Fanon extols the virtues of violence as a means to liberate …

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Downfall of a Dynasty: The February Revolution

The slogan “Daite khleb – Give us bread!” echoed throughout Petrograd as 90,000 people gathered to strike against the tsar, Nicholas Romanov (“February Revolution”). The demonstration began on March 8th, 1917 when working class women marched through the capital’s streets angry over food scarcity, overgrown breadlines, and the seemingly indifferent tsar. They ardently demanded for …

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North of the Colour Line: Sleeping Car Porters and the Battle Against Jim Crow on Canadian Rails, 1880-1920

IN APRIL 1854, the Great Western Railway declared that it urgently needed eight hundred workers to guard its tracks against stray cattle and hog crossings. Its advertisement, strategically placed in Canada’s most important black newspaper of the day, the Provincial Freeman, sought African Canadians for the task. [1] Before the turn of the century, African …

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